Background: The prevalence of overweight and obesity are high in Kuwait. Metabolic Syndrome is associated with both. It is expected to find the syndrome higher than in other countries. Objective: To assess the prevalence of MS using two different diagnostic criteria, the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and the National Cholesterol Education Program—Third Adult Treatment Panel Modified for age (NCEP-ATP III). Study design: A multi-stage random sample study. Methods: The analysis of data for this study was based on a sample of 303 male Kuwaiti adolescents, 10 - 19 years of age selected from intermediate and high schools. Anthropometric measurements and biochemical tests on blood samples were carried out. The IDF criterion requires waist circumference (WC) plus two of the following criteria: triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein (HDL), fasting blood sugar (FBS) and blood pressure (PB). The ATP III criterion requires three of the above parameters. The parameters mentioned must show increase in their values except for HDL which must show decrease in either criterion used. Results: Each of the two criterion revealed that the prevalence of MS was 14.8% and 19.5%, using the IDF and the ATP III criteria, respectively. HDL decreased in each of the two diagnostic criteria and the other four parameters increased, satisfying the diagnostic requirements of either criterion. Conclusions: Significant implications may be drawn from these results, especially when it comes to being at risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD).
 Al-Isa, A.N. (2004) Body mass index, overweight and obesity among Kuwaiti intermediate school adolescents aged 10-14 years. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 58, 1273-1277. doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601961
 Cook, S., Weizman, M., Auinger, P., Nguyen, M. and Dietz, W.H. (2004) Prevalence and trends of a metabolic syndrome phenotype among US adolescents 1999-2000 (metabolic syndrome/insulin resistance syndrome/pre-diabetes). Diabetes Care, 27, 2438-2443. doi:10.2337/diacare.27.10.2438
 Hirschler, V., Caleagno, M.L., Aranda, C., Maccallini, G. and Jadzinsky, M. (2007) Can the metabolic syndrome identify children with insulin resistance? Pediatric Diabetes, 8, 272-277. doi:10.1111/j.1399-5448.2007.00282.x
 Alberti, K.G., Zimmet, P. and Shaw, J. (2006) Metabolic syndrome—A new world-wide definition. A consensus statement from the international diabetes federation. Diabetic Medicine, 23, 469-480. doi:10.1111/j.1464-5491.2006.01858.x
 Nikzamir, A., Nakhjavai, M., Golmohamadi, T. and Dibai, L. (2008) Association of angio-converting enzyme gene insertion/deletion polymorphism with metabolic syndrome in Iranians with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Archives of Iranian Medicine, 11, 3-9.
 Can, A.S. and Bersot, T.P. (2007) Analysis of agreement among definitions of metabolic syndrome in nondiabetic Turkish adults: A methodological study. BMC Public Health, 7, 353-362. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-7-353
 Gami, A.S., Witt, B.J., Howard, D.E., Erwin, P.J., Garni, L.A., Somers, V.K. and Montori, V.M. (2007) Metabolic syndrome and risk of incident cardiovascular events and death: A systematic review and meta analysis of longitudinal studies. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 49, 403-414. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2006.09.032
 Dekker, J.M., Girmain, C., Rhodes, T., Nijpels, G., Stehouver, C.D., Bouter, L.M. and Heine, R.J. (2005) Metabolic syndrome and 10-year cardiovascular disease risk in the Hoorn Study. Circulation, 112, 666-673. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.104.516948
 Lorenzo, C., Williams, K., Hunt, K.J. and Haffner, S.M. (2007) The national cholesterol education program— Adult treatment panel III, international diabetes federation, and world health organization definitions of the metabolic syndrome as predictors of incident cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Diabetes Care, 30, 8-13. doi:10.2337/dc06-1414
 Malik, S., Wong, N.D., Franklin, S.S., Kamath, T.V., L’Italien, G.J., Pio, J.R. and Williams, G.R. (2004) Impact of the metabolic syndrome mortality from coronary heart disease, cardiovascular disease and all causes in United States adults. Circulation, 110, 1245-1250. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.0000140677.20606.0E
 Hunt, K.J., Resendez, R.G., Williams, K., Haffner, S.M. and Stern, M.P. (2004) National Education Program versus World Health Organization metabolic syndrome in relation to all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in the San Antonio Heart Study. Circulation, 110, 1251-1257. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.0000140762.04598.F9
 Girman, C.J., Rhodes, T., Mercuri, M., Pyorala, K., Kjekshus, J., Pedersen, T.R., Beere, P.A., Gotto, A.M. and Clearfield, M. (2004) The metabolic syndrome and risk of major coronary events in the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (45) and the Air Force/Texas Coronary Atherosclerosis Prevention Study (AFCAPS/Tex/CAPS). American Journal of Cardiology, 93, 136-141. doi:10.1016/j.amjcard.2003.09.028
 Al-Isa, A.N., Akanji, A.O. and Thalib, L. (2010) Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among female Kuwaiti adolescents, using two criteria. British Journal of Nutrition, 103, 77-81. doi:10.1017/S0007114509991425
 Calcaterra, V., Klersy, C., Muratori, T., Telli, S., Caramagna, C., Scaglia, F., Cisternino, M. and Larizza, D. (2007) Prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in children and adolescents with varying degrees of obesity. Clinical Endocrinology, 86, 868-872.
 Ryu, S.Y., Kweon, S.S., Park, H.C., Shin, J.H. and Rhee, J.A. (2007) Obesity and the metabolic syndrome in Korean adolescents. Journal of Korean Medical Science, 22, 513-517. doi:10.3346/jkms.2007.22.3.513
 Pan, Y. and Pratt, C.A. (2008) Metabolic syndrome and its association with diet and physical activity in US adolescents. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 108, 276-286. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2007.10.049
 Lim, S., Jang, H.C., Park, K.S., Lee, H.K., Chung, H.R., Joung, H.J. and Cho, S.I. (2008) Changes in metabolic syndrome of Korean children and adolescents in the period 1998 to 2001. Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, 31, 327-333.
 Al-Shayji, I.A. and Akanji, A.O. (2004) Obesity indices and major components of metabolic syndrome in young adult Arab subjects. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, 48, 1-7. doi:10.1159/000075079