JWARP  Vol.2 No.11 , November 2010
Removal of Androgens and Estrogens from Water by Reactive Materials
ABSTRACT
Nowadays, endocrine disruptor compounds in the water system have become a concern due to the risk of contamination to wild life and humans even at the nanogram level. Excess estrogens and androgens are a major contributor group of endocrine compounds. Statistical surveys have shown that dairy farms contribute to over 90% of the total estrogens in the UK and US. Reporter gene assays (RGAs) is being developed to assess the efficiency of reactive materials to remove target hormonal contaminants from dairy farm wastewater. This study demonstrates that 2 g of reactive materials (granular activated carbon (GAC), zero-valent iron (ZVI) and organoclay) efficiently removed over 50% of 17β-estradiol and 92% Testosterone over a 24 h period from 20 ml of HPLC grade water spiked at a concentration of 1000 ng l-1. Therefore, these materials may be useful adsorbents for the advanced treatment of residual natural hormones in dairy farm wastewater.

Cite this paper
nullK. Cai, D. Phillips, C. Elliott, E. Heiden, M. Scippo, M. Muller and L. Connolly, "Removal of Androgens and Estrogens from Water by Reactive Materials," Journal of Water Resource and Protection, Vol. 2 No. 11, 2010, pp. 990-993. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2010.211118.
References
[1]   T. Damstra, S. Barlow, A. Bergman, R. Kavlock and G. Van Der Kraak, “Global Assessment of the State of Science of Endocrine Disruptors,” WHO/IPCS Publish- ing, 2002.

[2]   M. Burke, “UK to Tackle Endocrine Disrupters in Waste- water,” Environomental Science Technolology, Vol. 38, No. 19, 2004, pp. 362A-363A.

[3]   K. Schenck, T. Speth, L. Rosenblum, S. Wendelken, B. Pepich and R. Krishnan, “Evaluation of Drinking Water Treatment Technologies for Removal of Endocrine Disrupting Compounds,” SETAC 23rd Annual Meeting, Salt Lake City, 2003.

[4]   S. Arnon, O. Dahan, S. Elhanany, K. Cohen, I. Pankratov, A. Gross, Z. Ronen, S. Baram and L. S. Shore, “Transport of Testosterone and Estrogen from Dairy-Farm Waste Lagoons to Groundwater,” Environomental Science. Technology, Vol. 42, No. 15, 2008, pp. 5521-5526.

[5]   B. M. Blankvoort, R. J. Rodenburg, A. J. Murk, J. H. Koeman, R. Schilt and M. M. J. G. A. Jac, “Androgenic activity in Surface Water Samples Detected Using the AR-LUX Assay: Indications for Mixture Effects,” Enviromental Toxicology and Pharmacology, Vol. 19, No. 2, 2005, pp. 163-171.

[6]   L. Connolly, C. Kai, J. Tarbin, E. Van der Heiden, M. L. Scippo, M. Muller and C. T. Elliott, “Detection of Glucocorticoid Bioactivity in Bovine Urine Samples Using a Reporter Gene Assay,” Analytical Chemica Acta, Vol. 637, No. 1-2, 2009, pp 321-327.

[7]   A. C. Johnson, R. J. Williams and P. Matthiessen, “The Potential Steroid Hormone Contribution of Farm Animals to Freshwaters, the United Kingdom as a Case Study,” Science of Total Environment, Vol. 362, No. 1-3, 2006, pp. 166-178.

[8]   E. P. Kolodziej, T. Harter and D. L. Sedlak, “Dairy Wastewater, Aquaculture, and Spawning Fish as Sources of Steroid Hormones in the Aquatic Environment,” Environomental Science Technolology, Vol. 38, No. 23, 2004, pp. 6377-6384.

[9]   A. Sarmah, G. L. Northcott, F. D. L. Leusch and L. A. Tremblay, “A Survey of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) in Municipal Sewage and Animal Waste Effluents in the Waikato Region of New Zealand,” Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 355, No.1-3, 2006, pp. 135-144.

[10]   R. B. Powell, R. W. Puls, D. W. Blowes, J. L. Vogan, R. W. Gillham, P. D. Powell, D. Schultz, T. Sivavec and R. Landis, “Permeable Reactive Barrier Technologies for the Contaminant Remediation,” EPA/600/R-98/125, 1998.

[11]   S. D. Kim, J. Cho, S. I. Kim, B. J. Vanderford and S. A. Snyder, “Occurrence and Removal of Pharmaceuticals and Endocrine Disruptors in South Korean Surface, Drinking, and Waste Waters,” Water Research, Vol. 41, No. 5, 2007, pp. 1013-1021.

[12]   Y. Mu, H. Q. Yu, J. C. Zheng, S. J. Zhang and G. P. Sheng, “Reductive Degradation of Nitrobenzene in Aqueous Solution by Zero-Valent Iron,” Chemosphere, Vol. 54, No. 7, 2004, pp. 789-794.

[13]   S. H. Kang and W. Choi, “Oxidative Degradation of Organic Compounds Using Zero-Valent Iron in the Presence of Natural Organic Matter Serving as an Electron Shuttle,” Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 43, No. 3, 2009, pp. 878-883.

[14]   V. Gianotti, M. Benzi, G. Croce, P. Frascarolo, F. Gosetti, E. Mazzucco, M. Bottaro and M. E. Gennaro, “The Use of Clay to Sequestrate Oranic Pollutants. Leaching Experiments,” Chemosphere, Vol. 73, No. 11, 2008, pp. 1731-1736.

[15]   P. Willemsen, M. L. Scippo, G. Kausel, J. Figueroa, G, Maghuin-Rogister, J. A. Martial and M. Muller, “Use of Reporter Cell Lines for Detection of Endocrine-Disrupter Activity,” Analytical Chimica Acta, Vol. 378, No. 3, 2004, pp. 655-663.

 
 
Top