Booth, F.W., et al. (2000) Waging war on modern chronic diseases: Primary prevention through exercise biology. Journal of Applied Physiology, 88, 774-787.
 Helmrich, S.P., et al. (1991) Physical activity and reduced occurrence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. New England Journal of Medicine, 325, 147-152.
 Pietro, L.D., Dziura. J. and Blair, S.N. (2004) Estimated change in physical activity level (pal) and prediction of 5-year weight change in men: The aerobics center longitudinal study. International Journal of Obesity, 28, 1541- 1547. doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0802821
 Greendale, G.A., et al. (1995) Lifetime leisure exercise and osteoporosis. The rancho bernardo study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 141, 951-959.
 Fletcher, G.F., et al. (1996) Statement on exercise: Benefits and recommendations for physical activity programs for all Americans: A statement for health professionals by the committee on exercise and cardiac rehabilitation of the council on clinical cardiology, American heart association. Circulation, 94, 857-862.
 Schwartz, A. (2008) Physical activity. Seminars in Oncology Nursing, 24, 164-170.
 Heineman, E.F., et al. (1994) Increased risk of colorectal cancer among smokers: Results of a 26-year follow-up of US veterans and a review. International Journal of Cancer, 59, 728-738. doi:10.1002/ijc.2910590603
 Bianchini, F., Kaaks, R. and Vainio, H. (2002) Weight control and physical activity in cancer prevention. Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity, 3, 5-8.
 Voskuil, D.W., et al. (2007) Physical activity and endometrial cancer risk, a systematic review of current evidence. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention, 16, 639-648. doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-06-0742
 Lee, I.M., Sesso, H.D. and Paffenbarger, R.S. (1999) Physical activity and risk of lung cancer. International Journal of Epidemiology, 28, 620-625.
 Hsing, A.W., et al. (1994) Occupation, physical activity, and risk of prostate cancer in Shanghai, People’s Republic of China. Cancer Causes and Control, 5, 136-140.
 Kruk, J. and Aboul-Enein, H. (2006) Physical activity in the prevention of cancer. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 7, 11-21.
 McTiernan, A. (2004) Physical activity after cancer: Physiologic outcomes. Cancer Investigation, 22, 68-81.
 Thune, I., et al. (1997) Physical activity and the risk of breast cancer. New England Journal of Medicine, 336, 1269-1275. doi:10.1056/NEJM199705013361801
 Friedenreich, C.M., et al. (2012) Inflammatory marker changes in a yearlong randomized exercise intervention trial among postmenopausal women. Cancer Prevention Research, 5, 98-108.
 Chlebowski, R.T., Aiello, E. and McTiernan, A. (2002) Weight loss in breast cancer patient management. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 20, 1128-1143.
 Daling, J.R., et al. (2001) Relation of body mass index to tumor markers and survival among young women with invasive ductal breast carcinoma. Cancer, 92, 720-729.
 Kroenke, C., et al. (2005) Weight, weight gain, and survival after breast cancer diagnosis. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 23, 1370-1378. doi:10.1200/JCO.2005.01.079
 Suijkerbuijk, K.P.M., et al. (2006) Physical activity in relation to mammographic density in the dutch prospect-European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition cohort. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention, 15, 456-460. doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-05-0569
 Holmes, M.D., et al. (2004) Physical activity and survival after breast cancer diagnosis. AACR Meeting Abstracts, 2004, 336.
 Monninkhof, E.M., et al. (2007) Physical activity and breast cancer: A systematic review. Epidemiology, 18, 137-157. doi:10.1097/01.ede.0000251167.75581.98
 World Health Organization (2003) Health and development through physical activity and sport. World Health Organization, Geneva.
 Piro, F.N., Næss, Ø. and Claussen, B. (2006) Physical activity among elderly people in a city population: The influence of neighbourhood level violence and self perceived safety. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 60, 626-632. doi:10.1136/jech.2005.042697
 Brownson, R.C., Boehmer, T.K. and Luke, D.A. (2005) Declining rates of physical activity in the United States: What are the contributors? Annual Review of Public Health, 26, 421-443.
 Wendel-Vos, W., et al. (2007) Potential environmental determinants of physical activity in adults: A systematic review. Obesity Reviews, 8, 425-440.
 Huston, S.L., et al. (2003) Neighborhood environment, access to places for activity, and leisure-time physical activity in a diverse North Carolina population. American Journal of Health Promotion, 18, 58-69.
 Kahn, E.B., et al. (2002) The effectiveness of interventions to increase physical activity: A systematic review. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 22, 73-107.
 Institute for Public Health (2006) The third national health and morbidity survey. Physical Activity, Ministry of Health, Kuala Lumpur. http://www.nih.gov.my
 World Health Organisation (2004) Global strategy on diet, physical activity and health. World Health Organisation, Geneva.
 Stewart, B.W. and Paul Kleihues, P. (2003) World cancer report. World Health Organization, Lyon.
 Demark-Wahnefried, W., et al. (2001) Changes in weight, body composition, and factors influencing energy balance among premenopausal breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 19, 2381-2389.
 Loh, S.Y., et al. (2007) Perceived barriers to self management in Malaysian women. Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health, 19, 52-57.
 Loh, S.Y., et al. (2009) Targeting health disparity in breast cancer: Insights into women’s knowledge of their cancer profile in Malaysia. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 10, 631-636.
 Loh, S.Y., et al. (2011) Does a self management intervention lower distress in woman diagnosed with breast cancer? Japanese Psychological Research, 54, 159-169.
 Craig, C., et al. (2003) International physical activity questionnaire: 12-country reliability and validity. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 35, 1381-1395.
 Bandura, A. (2006) Guide for constructing self-efficacy scales, in self-efficacy beliefs of adolescents. In: Pajares, F. and Urdan, T., Eds., Adolescence and Education, Information Age Publishing, Greenwich, 301-337.
 Shin, Y., Jang, H. and Pender, N.J. (2001) Psychometric evaluation of the exercise self-efficacy scale among Korean adults with chronic diseases. Research in Nursing & Health, 24, 68-76.
 Pinto, B.M., et al. (2011) Physical activity motivation and cancer survivorship. Recent Results in Cancer Research, 186, 367-387.
 McBride, C.M., Emmons, K.M. and Lipkus, I.M. (2003) Understanding the potential of teachable moments: The case of smoking cessation. Health Education Research, 18, 156-170. doi:10.1093/her/18.2.156
 Prochaska, J.O., DiClemente, C.C. and Norcross, J.C. (1992) In search of how people change. American Psychologist, 47, 1102-1114.
 Thune, I. and Ferberg, A. (2001) Physical activity and cancer risk: Dose-response and cancer, all sites and site specific. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 33, S530-S550.
 Kamarudin, R., Shah, S.A. and Hidayah, N. (2006) Lifestyle factors and breast cancer: A case-control study in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Asia Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 7, 51-54.
 Bellizzi, K.M., et al. (2005) Health behaviors of cancer survivors: Examining opportunities for cancer control intervention. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 23, 8884-8893.
 Milne, H.M., et al. (2007) Association between physical activity and quality of life among western Australian breast cancer survivors. Psycho-Oncology, 16, 1059-1068.
 Courney, K.S. and Friedenreich, C.M. (1997) Relationship between exercise pattern across the cancer experience and current quality of life in colorectal cancer survivors. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 3, 215-226.
 Brownson, R.C., et al. (2000) Measuring physical activity with the behavioural risk factor surveillance system. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 32, 1913-1918.
 Courneya, K.S. (2001) Exercise interventions during cancer treatment: Biopsychosocial outcomes. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 29, 60-64.
 Lee, S.W. (1987) Affection of Korean interpersonal relationship. Modern Society, 7, 146-159.
 Johnson, C.A., et al. (1990) Perceived barriers to exercise and weight control practices in community women. Women & Health, 16, 177-191. doi:10.1300/J013v16n03_10
 Nelson, J.P. (1991) Perceived health, self-esteem, health habits, and perceived benefits and barriers to exercise in women who have and who have not experienced stage I breast cancer. Oncology Nursing Forum, 18, 1191-1197.
 Owen, N., et al. (1995) Serial mass-media campaigns to promote physical activity: Reinforcing or redundant? American Journal of Public Health, 85, 244-248.