With the excess use of nitrogen, a number of global and regional factors need to be addressed. Nitrate contamination of agricultural water leads to a number of environmental problems. During the twentieth century, the human being has used increasingly more reactive nitrogen, intentionally as fertilizer. The revolution in agricultural production is possibly increase by the use of nitrogen fertilizers. The inorganic nitrogen fertilizers are an essential input for maintaining high crop yield. This article discusses the origin and role of nitrogen in the environment. The potential and use of nitrogen as fertilizer for groundwater and surface water quality resources in agricultural purposes are discussed.
Cite this paper
A. Khajuria and S. Kanae, "Potential and Use of Nitrate in Agricultural Purposes," Journal of Water Resource and Protection, Vol. 5 No. 5, 2013, pp. 529-533. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2013.55053.
 P. M. Vitousek, J. Aber, R. W. Howarth, G. E. Likens, P. A. Matson, D. W. Schindler, W. H. Schlesinger and G. D. Tilman, “Human Alteration of the Global Nitrogen Cycle: Causes and Consequences,” Issues in Ecology, Vol. 7, No. 1, 1997, pp. 1-16.
 P. N. Rekha, R. S. Kanwar, A. K. Nayak, C. K. Hoang, and C. H. Pederson, “Nitrate Leaching to Shallow Groundwater Systems from Agricultural Fields with Different Management Practices,” Journal of Environmental Monitoring, Vol. 13, No. 9, 2011, pp. 2550-2558.
 R. F. Spalding and M. E. Exner, “Occurrence of Nitrate in Groundwater—A Review,” Journal of Environmental Quality, Vol. 22, No. 3, 1993, pp. 392-402.
 A. Agrawal, R. S. Pandey and B. Sharma, “Water Pollution with Special Reference to Pesticide Contamination in India,” Journal of Water Resource and Protection, Vol. 2, No. 5, 2010, pp. 432-448. doi:10.4236/jwarp.2010.25050
 J. A. Delgado and W. Bausch, “Potential use of Precision Conservation Techniques to reduce nitrate leaching in Surface Waters,” Journal of Environmental Quality, Vol. 60, No. 6, 2005, pp. 379-387.
 A. P. Gupta, “Nitrogen Use Scenario of India,” Science in China Series C: Life Sciences, Vol. 48, Suppl. 2, 2005, pp. 921-927.
 J. K. Bohlke, “Groundwater Recharge and Agricultural Contamination,” Hydrogeology Journal, Vol. 10, No. 1, 2002, pp. 153-179. doi:10.1007/s10040-001-0183-3
 US National Research Council (USNRC), “The Health Effects of Nitrate, Nitrite and N-Nitroso Compounds,” National Academy Press, Washington DC, 1981.
 Food and Agriculture Organization of India, “Total Nitrogen Fertilizer Dataset (1981- 2000),” 2004.
 G. R. Conway and J. N. Pretty, “Fertilizer Risks in the Developing Countries,” Nature, Vol. 334, No. 21, 1988, pp. 207-208. doi:10.1038/334207a0
 P. A. Lawlor, M. J. Helmers, J. L. Baker, S. W. Melvin, and D. W. Lemke, “Nitrogen Application Rate Effects on Corn Yield and Nitrate-Nitrogen Concentration and Loss in Sub-Surface Drainage,” ASAE Paper No. 052025, American Society of Agricultural Engineers, St. Joseph, 2005.
 D. L. Dinnes, D. L. Karlen, D. B. Jaynes, T. C. Kaspar, J. L. Hatfield, T. S. Colvin and C. A. Cambardella, “Nitrogen Management Strategies to Reduce Nitrate Leaching in Tile-Drained Midwestern Soils,” Agronomy Journal, Vol. 94, No. 1, 2002, pp. 153-171.
 Fertilizer Association of India (FAI), “The Fertilizer Statistics 2008-2009,” Fertilizer Association of Punjab, India, 2008.
 G. D. Aggarwal, S. K. Lunkad and T. Malkhed, “Diffuse Agricultural Nitrate Pollution of Groundwaters in India,” Water Science and Technology, Vol. 39, No. 3, 1999, pp. 67-75. doi:10.1016/S0273-1223(99)00033-5
 A. Khajuria, S. Yoshikawa and S. Kanae, “Estimation and Prediction of Water Availability and Water Withdrawal in India,” Journal of Japan Society of Civil Engineers, Ser. B1 (Hydraulic Engineering), Vol. 69, No. 4, 2013, pp. I_145- I_150