ENG  Vol.5 No.5 , May 2013
Influence of Swimming Pool Design on Hydraulic Behavior: A Numerical and Experimental Study
A swimming pool can be considered as a chemical reactor with specific hydraulic and macro-mixing characteristics. The nature of flow into the pool depends on various characteristics, such as water inlets and outlets (number and position), pool geometry, and flow rate. This study investigates how swimming pool design affects hydraulic behavior based on experimental and computational fluid dynamics studies (CFD). This paper does not describe the hydraulic behavior of all existing swimming pools, however the cases studied here are representative of pool designs widely used in Europe and the United States. The model developed, based on the principle of a stirred reactor, could be used as a first approach in describing the hydraulic behavior of regular pools. This model is suitable for the study of physical and chemical phenomena with long characteristic times. Other, more advanced, models were shown to be more suitable to the case of fast chemical processes.

Cite this paper
A. Cloteaux, F. Gérardin and N. Midoux, "Influence of Swimming Pool Design on Hydraulic Behavior: A Numerical and Experimental Study," Engineering, Vol. 5 No. 5, 2013, pp. 511-524. doi: 10.4236/eng.2013.55061.

[1]   World Health Organization, “Guidelines for Safe Recreational Water Environments—Volume 2: Swimming Pools and Similar Environments,” World Health Organization, Geneva, 2006.

[2]   Afsset, “Sanitary Risks in Swimming Pools—Evaluation of the Sanitary Risks in Swimming Pools—Part 1: Regulated Pools,” Scientific Edition, Water and Biological Agents, 2010.

[3]   J. Li and E. R. Blatchley III, “Volatile Disinfection ByProduct Formation Resulting from Chlorination of Organic-Nitrogen Precursors in Swimming Pools,” Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 41, No. 19, 2007, pp. 6732-6739. doi:10.1021/es070871+

[4]   W. A. Weaver, J. Li, Y. L. Wen, J. Johnston, M. R. Blatchley and E. R. Blatchley III, “Volatile Disinfection By-Product Analysis from Chlorinated Indoor Swimming Pools,” Water Research, Vol. 43, No. 13, 2009, pp. 33083318. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2009.04.035

[5]   C. T. Jafvert and R. L. Valentine, “Reaction Scheme for the Chlorination of Ammoniacal Water,” Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 26, No. 3, 1992, pp. 577-586. doi:10.1021/es00027a022

[6]   K. Ozekin, R. L. Valentine and P. J. Vikesland, “Modeling the Decomposition of Disinfecting Residuals of Chloramine,” ACS Symposium Series, Vol. 649, 1996, pp. 115-125. http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/bk-1996-0649.ch008

[7]   Y. Liu and J. Ducoste, “Numerical Simulation of Chloramines Formation in Turbulent Flow Using a Multi-Fluid Micromixing Model,” Environmental Modelling & Software, Vol. 21, No. 8, 2006, pp. 1198-1213. doi:10.1016/j.envsoft.2005.06.007

[8]   A. I. Stamou, “Improving the Hydraulic Efficiency of Water Process Tanks Using CFD Models,” Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification, Vol. 47, No. 8, 2008, pp. 1179-1189. doi:10.1016/j.cep.2007.02.033

[9]   FINA, 2009. http://www.fina.org/

[10]   ANSI, “ANSI/NSPI-1 (2003) Standard for Public Swimming Pools,” 2003. www.webstore.ansi.org

[11]   Swiss Standard, “Water and Plant Regeneration of water in Public Swimming Pools,” SIA Swiss Society of Engineers and Architects, Zurich, 2000.

[12]   T. W. Zhang, T. F. Wang and J. F. Wang, “Mathematical Modeling of the Residence Time Distribution in Loop Reactors,” Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification, Vol. 44, No. 11, 2005, pp. 1221-1227. doi:10.1016/j.cep.2005.05.001

[13]   M. Alliet-Gaubert, R. Sardeing, C. Xuereb, P. Hobbes, B. Letellier and P. Swaels, “CFD Analysis of Industrial Multi-Staged Stirred Vessels,” Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification, Vol. 45, No. 5, 2006, pp. 415-427. doi:10.1016/j.cep.2005.11.003

[14]   B. E. Launder and D. B. Spalding, “Lectures in Mathematical Models of Turbulence,” Academic Press, Waltham, 1972.

[15]   C. R. Wilke and P. Chang, “Correlation of Diffusion Coefficients in Dilute Solutions,” AIChE Journal, Vol. 1, No. 2, 2004, pp. 264-270. doi:10.1002/aic.690010222

[16]   Ansys, “Fluent,” 2009. www.ansys.com/support/documentation