Back
 ENG  Vol.5 No.5 , May 2013
Evaluating Reference Crop Evapotranspiration (ETo) in the Centre of Guanzhong Basin—Case of Xingping & Wugong, Shaanxi, China
Abstract: In this paper, the Penman-Monteith method was applied to evaluate the reference crop evapotranspiration. A reliable estimation of the reference evapotranspiration (ETo) is of critical importance and required accurate estimates to close the water balance. The aim of this paper is estimating the reference evapotranspiration (ETo) as preliminary to use for groundwater modeling in the area. Based on FAO-Penman-Monteith method, ETo calculator software was applied. Meteorological data within this study were obtained from two gauges stations (Xing ping and Wu gong) and available literatures. The results indicated that the values of ETo for a period (1981-2009)—29 years—in two stations approximately the same. Specifically, is ranged between 0.4 - 6.9 mm /day, 0.4 - 6.7 mm/day and the average value is 2.6 mm/ day, 2.6 mm/day in Xing ping and Wu gong respectively. In addition, the maximum values were occurred in summer season (May, June and July). The result also found that the correlation coefficient ≈ 1. Moreover, “ETo” was increasing by recent years. The reference crop evapotranspiration for some crops were calculated.
Cite this paper: H. Ahmed and J. Liu, "Evaluating Reference Crop Evapotranspiration (ETo) in the Centre of Guanzhong Basin—Case of Xingping & Wugong, Shaanxi, China," Engineering, Vol. 5 No. 5, 2013, pp. 459-468. doi: 10.4236/eng.2013.55055.
References

[1]   R. G. Allen, L. S. Pereira, D. Raes and M. Smith, “Crop Evapotranspiration—Guidelines for Computing Crop Water Requirements,” FAO—Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, 1998.

[2]   I. A. Walter, R. G. Allen, R. Elliott, B. Mecham, M. E. Jensen, et al., “ASCE’s Standardized Reference Evapotranspiration Equation,” In: R. G. Evans, B. L. Benham, T. P. Trooien, Eds., Proceedings of National Irrigation Symposium, ASAE, Phoenix, 2000, pp. 209-215.

[3]   P. Droogers and R. G. Allen, “Estimating Reference Evapotranspiration under Inaccurate Data Conditions,” Irrigation and Drainage Systems, Vol. 16, No. 1, 2002, pp. 33-45.

[4]   K. R. Karanth, “Studies in Hydrologic Parameters of Ground Water Recharge in Water Balance Computations in Andra Pradesh,” Hydrology Review, Vol. 4, No. 1-4, 1978, p. 65.

[5]   M. Smith, R. Allen, J. L. Monteith, A. Perrier, L. Santos Pereira and A. Sageren, “Expert Consultation on Revision of FAO Methodologies for Crop Water Requirements,” Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, Land and Water Development Division, Rome, 1992, p. 60.

[6]   J. Doorenbose and W. O. Pruitt, “Guideline for predicting crop water requirements,” FAO Irrigation and Drainage, Rome, 1977, p. 193.

[7]   S. Z. Kang, “Calculation and Prediction of Actual Winter Wheat Evapotranspiration in Condition of Soil Water Deficit (in Chinese),” Acta Unic. Agric. Boreali-Occidentalis, Vol. 14, No. 1, 1986, pp. 93-102.

[8]   S. Z. Kang, Z. Z. He and X. Zhang, “Crop Water Requirement and Irrigation Models in Shaanxi Province,” Chinese Hydraulic and Hydropower Press, Beijing, 1992, p. 2.

[9]   G. Kerr, L. Pochop, K. J. Fornstrom, J. M. Krall and D. Brown, “Soil Water and ET Estimates for a Wide Range of Rainfed and Irrigated Conditions,” Agricultural Water Management, Vol. 24, No. 2, 1993, pp. 147-159. doi:10.1016/0378-3774(93)90005-U

[10]   M. E. Jensen, “Consumptive Use of Water and Irrigation Water Requirements: A Report,” American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, 1974.

[11]   R. W. Hill, R. J. Hanks and J. L. Wright, “Crop Yield Models Adapted to Irrigation Scheduling,” Utah State University, Logan, 1985, p. 198.

[12]   S. Z. Kang, X. M. Liu and Y. Z. Xiong, “Theory of Water Transport in Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Continuum and Its Application,” Chinese Hydraulic and Hydro-Power Press, Beijing, 1994, p. 228.

[13]   R. G. Allen, M. E. Jensen, J. L. Wright and R. D. Burman, “Operational Estimates of Reference Evapotranspiration,” Agronomy Journal, Vol. 81, No. 4, 1989, pp. 650-662. doi:10.2134/agronj1989.00021962008100040019x

[14]   G. H. Hargreaves and Z. A. Samani, “Reference Crop Evapotranspiration from Temperature,” Applied Engineering in Agriculture, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1985, pp. 96-99.

[15]   Md. H. Ali, T. S. Lee, C. Y. Kwok and A. F. Eloubaidy, “Modelling Evaporation and Evapotranspiration under Temperature Change in Malaysia,” Pertanika Journal of Science and Technology, Vol. 8, No. 2, 2000, pp. 191204.

[16]   D. Brunt, “Physical and Dynamical Meteorology,” 2nd Edition, University Press, Cambridge, 1952, p. 428.

[17]   R. B. Grayson, R. M. Argent, R. J. Nathan, et al., “Hydrological Recipes, Estimation Techniques in Australian Hydrology,” Cooperative Research Center for Catchment Hydrology, 1996.

[18]   J. F. Costello, A. Shields, R. B. Grayson and T. M. McMahon, “Determining Loss Characteristics of Arid Zone River Water Bodies,” River Research and Applications, Vol. 23, No. 7, 2007, pp. 715-731. doi:10.1002/rra.991

[19]   FAO, “ETo Calculator. Land and Water Digital Media Series No. 36,” FAO, Rome, 2009.

 
 
Top