FNS  Vol.4 No.5 , May 2013
The Potential Effect of Special Formulas on Cirrhotic Rats
Abstract: Liver protective effect of special formulas (1 and 2) was assessed against carbon tetra chloride (CCl4) which induced liver damage in Wister albino rats. The two prepared formulas reduced the changes in body weight and liver weight caused by CCl4 in rats. The toxicity of CCl4 is related to loss in body weight and increase in liver weight in rats. The weight ratios of liver to body weight (LW/BW) significantly increased in rats treated with CCl4 followed by other groups. Formulas 1 and 2 could play an important role in improvement of hematological indices in liver cirrhosis rats. Feeding treated rats on special formulas showed improvement in liver function compared to rats fed on basal diet, reflected by significant reduction of the activity of transaminases (ALT and AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin. There was a significant increase in total protein, albumin and globulin in serum. Significant increase in liver weight in rats treated with CCl4. There are no histopathological changes in all groups under study except for group 4 (CCl4 treated rats fed on basal diet) which orally administrated with CCl4 and had congestion of central vein and hepatic sinusoids.
Cite this paper: E. Hassan, G. El-Kherbawy, M. Ali and O. Dewidar, "The Potential Effect of Special Formulas on Cirrhotic Rats," Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 5, 2013, pp. 594-603. doi: 10.4236/fns.2013.45077.

[1]   T. Wang, N. L. Sun, W. D. Zhang, H. L. Li, G. C. Lu, B. J. Yuan, H. Jiang, J. She and C. Zhang, “Protective Effects of Dehydrocavidine on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Acute Hepatotoxicity in Rats,” Journal of Ethno pharmacology, Vol. 117, No. 2, 2008, pp. 300-308. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2008.02.010

[2]   A. Bhardwaj, P. Khatri, M. L. Soni and D. J. Ali, “Potent Herbal Hepatoprotective Drugs—A Review,” Journal Advances of Science Research, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2011, pp. 15-20.

[3]   E. M. Galati, M. R. Mondello, E. R. Lauriano, M. F. Taviano, M. Galluzzo and N. Miceli, “Opuntiaficus Indica (L.) Mill. Fruit Juice Protects Liver from Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Injury,” Phototherapy Research, Vol. 19, No. 9, 2005, pp. 796-800. doi:10.1002/ptr.1741

[4]   B. B. Mishra and V. K. Tiwari, “Natural Products: An Evolving Role in Future Drug Discovery,” European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, Vol. 46, No. 10, 2011, pp. 4769-4807. doi:10.1016/j.ejmech.2011.07.057

[5]   O. S. Olorunnisola, A. O. Akintola and A. J. Afolayan, “Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Effect of Sphenocentrum jollyanum (Menispermaceae) Stem Bark Extract against CCl4-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rats,” African Journal of Pharmacy Pharmacology, Vol. 5, No. 9, 2011, pp. 1241-1246.

[6]   Y. Toyin, F. S. M. Suru, M. A. Fafunsoand and U. E. Obioha, “Hepatoprotective Potentials of Phyllanthus amarus against Ethanol-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rats,” Food Chemistry and Toxicology, Vol. 46, No. 8, 2008, pp. 2658-2664.

[7]   N. Dolai, I. Karmakar, R. B. S. Kumar, B. Kar, A. Bala and P.K. Haldar, “Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Castanopsis indica in Mediating Hepatoprotective Activity of Carbon Tetrachloride Intoxicated Rats,” Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, Vol. 2, No. 1, 2012, pp. S242-S251.

[8]   S. Basu, “Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Lipid Peroxidation: Eicosanoid Formation and Their Regulation by Antioxidant Nutrients,” Toxicology, Vol. 189, No. 1-2, 2003, pp. 113-127. doi:10.1016/S0300-483X(03)00157-4

[9]   H. M?rk, “Basics of Nutrition in Cirrhosis of the Liver,” MMW Fortschr Medicine, Vol. 149, No. 17, 2007, pp. 33-42.

[10]   F. Gundling and W. Schepp, “Nutrition in Liver Cirrhosis: Diagnostic Aspects and Treatment,” Deutsche Medi zinische Wochenschrift, Vol. 133, No. 16, 2008, pp. 846 851. doi:10.1055/s-2008-1075659

[11]   E. Kalaitzakis, I. Bosaeus, L. Ohman and E. Bjornsson, “Altered Postprandial Glucose, Insulin, Leptin, and Ghrelin in Liver Cirrhosis: Correlations with Energy Intake and Resting Energy Expenditure,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 85, No. 3, 2007, pp. 808-815.

[12]   G. Marchesin, G. Bianchi, M. Merli, P. Amodio, C. Panella, C. Loguercio, F. R. Fanelli and R. Abbiati, “The Italian BCAA Study Group, Nutritional Supplementation with Branched-Chain Amino Acids in Advanced Cirrho sis: A Double-Blind, Randomized Trial,” Gastroenterology, Vol. 124, No. 7, 2003, pp. 1792-1801. doi:10.1016/S0016-5085(03)00323-8

[13]   A. M. Abdel-Salam, “Function Foods: Hopefulness to Good Health,” American Journal Food Technology, Vol. 586, No. 2, 2010, pp. 89-99.

[14]   S. Mobavhan, “Nutrition Support for Individuals with Liver Failure,” Nutrition Review, Vol. 58, No. 8, 2000, p. 2424.

[15]   E. Monsen, “Metabolic Effects of Liver Cirrhosis and Nutritional Intake,” Journal of the American Dietetic Association, Vol. 99, No. 9, 1999, p. 872.

[16]   R. S. Britton and B. R. Bacon, “Role of Free Radicals in Liver Diseases and Hepatic Fibrosis,” Hepatogastroenterology, Vol. 41, No. 4, 1994, p. 343.

[17]   J. Kalra, S. V. Mantha and K. Prasad, “Oxygen Free Radicals: Key Factors in Clinical Disease,” Lab Medical International, Vol. 11, No. 1, 1994, p. 16.

[18]   Y. Sumida, T. Nakashima, T. Yoh, M. Furutant and A. Hirohoma, “Serum Thioredoxin Levels as a Predictor of Steatohepatitis in Patients with Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease,” Journal of Hepatology, Vol. 38, No. 1, 2003, pp. 32-38. doi:10.1016/S0168-8278(02)00331-8

[19]   D. A. Mohamed and S. Y. Al-Okbi, “Preparation and Evaluation of Two Special Foods in Rats with Liver Cirrhosis,” Medical Journal of Islamic World Academy of Sciences, Vol. 17, No. 1, 2009. pp. 45-52.

[20]   B. Halliwell, “Dietary Polyphenols: Good, Bad, or Indif ferent for Your Health?” Cardiovascular Research, Vol. 73, No. 2, 2007, pp. 341-347. doi:10.1016/j.cardiores.2006.10.004

[21]   F. Yang, T. K. Basu and B. Ooraikul, “Studies on Germination Condition and Antioxidants Content of Wheat Grain,” Journal of Food Science and Nutrition, Vol. 57, No. 4, 2001, pp. 319-330.

[22]   A. Perera and E. R. Jansz, “Preliminary Investigations on the Red Pigment in Rice and Its Effect on Glucose Re lease from Rice Starch,” Journal Natural Science, Vol. 28, No. 3, 2000, pp. 185-192.

[23]   W. H. Ling, Q. X. Cheng, J. Ma and T. Wang, “Red and Black Rice Decrease Antherosclerotic Plaque Formation and Increase Antioxidants Status in Rabbits,” Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 131, No. 5, 2001, pp. 1421-1426.

[24]   P. James, F. Amber, I. K Meng, W. Ya-Jane and G. David, “Composition of Physicochemical Properties and Starch Structure of Red Rice and Cultivated Rice,” Journal Agriculture of Food Chemistry, Vol. 54, No. 7, 2006, pp. 2712-2718. doi:10.1021/jf0523418

[25]   M. Abd El-Mageed, E. M. Hassan, and A. T. El-Akel, “High Protein Cookies Made with Pigeon Pea and Shor ghum Blends,” Minia Journal of Agriculture Research, Vol. 13, No. 1, 1991, pp. 323-341.

[26]   Association of Official Analytic Chemist, “Official Method of Analytic Chemist,” 18th Edition, AOAC, Wa shington, 2005.

[27]   Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), “Food Com position Tables for the Near East,” In: Food and Nutrition, FAO, Rome, 1982, p. 26.

[28]   Association of Official Agricultural Chemists, “Official Method of Analysis,” 17th Edition, AOAC, Washington, 2000.

[29]   F. Blonde-Cynober, F. Plassart, C. Pey, C. C. Iucas, N. Moukarbel, R. Poupon and L. Cynober, “Assessment of CCl4 Induced Cirrhosis Model for Studies of Nitrogen Metabolism in Chronic Liver Diseases,” Annals of Nutri tion and Metabolism, Vol. 38, No. 4, 1994, pp. 238-248. doi:10.1159/000177817

[30]   S. Schermer, “The Blood Morphology of Laboratory Animal, Long Man, Printed in Great Britain,” Green and Co., LTD, 1967, 350 p.

[31]   K. Moser, F. Seelenbinder, S. M. Fadden, C. Adkins, M. Goshay and F. Davis, “Selecting a New Analyzer for the Hematology Laboratory: The Experience at Ohio,” Health Hospital in Laboratory Hematology, Vol. 7, No. 8, 2001, pp. 245-254.

[32]   D. S. Young, “Effect of Drugs on Clinical Lab Tests,” 4th Edition, AACC Press, Washington, 1995.

[33]   R. Murray, “Alanine Aminotransferase,” Mosby Co., St. Louis, 1984, pp. 1088-1090.

[34]   A. Belfield and D. M. Goldberg, “Colorimetric Determination of Alkaline Phosphatase Activity,” Enzyme, Vol. 12, No. 5, 1971, pp. 561-568.

[35]   A. Kaplan, “Bilirubin,” Mosby Co., St. Louis, 1984, pp. 1238-1241.

[36]   R. J. Henry, D. C. Cannon and J. W. Win, “Method of Protein Determination in Plasma,” Clinical Chemistry, Vol. 20, No. 10, 1974, pp. 1362-1363.

[37]   H. Suzuki and K. Suzuki, “Rat Hypoplastic Kidney (Hpk/Hpk) Induces Renal Anemia, Hyperparathyroidism, and Osteodystrophy at the End Stage of Renal Failure,” Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, Vol. 60, No. 10, 1998, pp. 1051-1058. doi:10.1292/jvms.60.1051

[38]   J. D. Bancroft, A. Steven and D. R. Turner, “Theory and Practice of Histological Techniques,” 4th Edition, Chur chill Livingstone, Edinburg, 1996.

[39]   R. Mohan, B. Kathleen and Z. Marc, “PC-STAT, Version 1A (One Way Analysis of Variance),” University of Georgia, Athens, 1985.

[40]   W. Ellie, K. D. Linda, P. Kalhryn and R. R. Sharon, “Pa tient with Cirrhosis,” In: P. Williams, E. Feldman, A. Glubka and M. Myers, Eds., Nutrition for Health and Health Care, 4th Edition, Yolanda Cassio Publisher, New York, 2011, p. 554.

[41]   C. G. Yoon, H. S. Park and S. I. Lee, “Effect of Dietary Tungstate on the Liver Damage in CCl4-Treated Rats,” Journal Korean Society Food Nutrition, Vol. 22, No. 6, 1993, pp. 678-684.

[42]   J. O. Moon, S. K. Park and T. Nagano, “Hepatoprotective Effect of Fe-TPEN on Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Liver Injury in Rats,” Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, Vol. 21, No. 3, 1998, pp. 284-288. doi:10.1248/bpb.21.284

[43]   J. D. Colli and G. Webster, “Liver and Biliary Tract Dis ease,” In: R. C. Nicki, R. W. Brian and H. R. Stuart, Eds., Davidsons Principles and Practice of Medicine, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2010, pp. 819-840.

[44]   M. I. Kazeem, H. A. Bankole and A. A. Fatai, “Protec tive Effect of Ginger in Normal and Carbon-Tetrachloride Induced Hepatotoxic Rats,” Annals of Biological Resear ch, Vol. 2, No. 1, 2011, pp. 1-8.

[45]   D. Adawi, F. B. Kasravi, G. J. Molin and B. Jeppsson, “Effect of Lactobacillus Supplemention with and without Arginine on Liver Damage and Bacteria Translocation in an Acute Liver Injury Model,” Hepatology, Vol. 25, No. 3, 1997, pp. 642-647. doi:10.1002/hep.510250325

[46]   G. Mehmetcik, G. Ozdemirler, N. Kocak-Toker, U. Ce vikbas and M. Uysal, “Effect of Pretreatment with Arti choke Extract on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver In jury and Oxidative Stress,” Experimental Toxicolology Patholology, Vol. 60, No. 6, 2008, pp. 475-480. doi:10.1016/j.etp.2008.04.014

[47]   M. A. Livrea and L. Tesoriere, “Antioxidant Activities of Prickly Pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) Fruit and Its Beta lains: Betanin and Indicaxanthin,” In: L. Packer, C. N. Ong and B. Halliwell, Eds., Herbal and Traditional Medicine: Molecular Aspects of Health, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, 2004, pp. 537-556. doi:10.1201/9780203025901.ch24

[48]   L. Chen, A. Mehta, M. Berenbaum, A. R. Zangerl and N. J. Engeseth, “Honeys from Different Floral Sources as Inhibitors of Enzymatic Browning in Fruit and Vegeta ble Homogenates,” Journal Agriculture of Food Chemis try, Vol. 48, No. 10, 2000, pp. 4997-5000. doi:10.1021/jf000373j

[49]   J. Boyer and R. H. Liu, “Apple Phytochemicals and Their Health Benefits,” Nutrition, Vol. 3, 2004, p. 5. doi:10.1186/1475-2891-3-5

[50]   B. Halliwell, “Polyphenols: Antioxidant Treats for Heal thy Living or Covert Toxins?” Journal Science Food Ag riculture, Vol. 86, No. 13, 2006, pp. 1992-1995. doi:10.1002/jsfa.2612

[51]   F. Finocchiaro, B. Ferrari, A. Gianinetti, C. Dall’Asta, G. Galaverna, F. Scazzina and N. Pellegrini, “Characteriza tion of Antioxidant Compounds of Red and White Rice and Changes in Total Antioxidant Capacity during Proc essing,” Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, Vol. 51, No. 8, 2007, pp. 1006-1019. doi:10.1002/mnfr.200700011

[52]   M. F. Rodriguez, A. Wall, J. Kodrup, G. Lopez-Cervantes and A. M. Calderon, “Nutritional and Clinical Evaluation of a Modified Soy Protein with Covalently Bound Branched-Chain Amino Acids in Cirrhotic Sprague Dawley Rats,” Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, Vol. 47, No. 2, 2003, pp. 85-92. doi:10.1159/000069280

[53]   M. Charlton, “Branched-Chain Amino Acid Enriched supplements as Therapy for Liver Disease,” Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 136, No. 1, 2006, pp. 295S-298S.