The residual levels and migration behavior of volatile substances were detected using HS-GC/MS for acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer (ABS) toys, thermoplastic elastomer toys, and rubber toys made from 1,3-butadiene and styrene found on the Japanese market. The maximum residual level of these volatile substances was 2600 μg/g of styrene in ABS toys. In particular, the levels of known carcinogens 1,3-butadiene, benzene, and acrylonitrile are 5.3, 2.5 and 55 μg/g, which are much lower than the EU limit of 0.1%. Furthermore, some volatile substances migrated from ABS toys into water in amounts of 3 -40 ng/mL. Thermoplastic elastomer toys and rubber toys contained these volatile substances at significantly lower levels than ABS toys.
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