This study examined the
development of urban gullies in a part of Southwestern Nigeria. This was done
with a view to determine the volume and amount of sediment loss from the 1st and 2nd order gullies in a cascade system.Twenty (20) towns were randomly
selected from where thirty (30) gully systems comprising forty (40) 1st order and five (5) 2nd order gullies were measured with Tape and
Total Station (TS). The gully dimensions measured include gully lengths,
depths and cross sectional areas. The core samples were also taken from the
study gullies for the determination of the soil bulk density. The results
showed that the mean volume of soil loss from the 1st order and (2nd)
order gullies in the study area are 1612.633m3 and 1629.922m3, respectively. The weight
of the estimated sediment loss from the 1st order and 2nd order gullies are 2661.621 and 2657.318 tonnes, respectively. The result
further showed that the total soil loss of 119661.442 tonnes was obtained from
the study gullies and that the 1st order gullies accounted for 87%
of the total soil loss. This was an indication of soil degradation in the area.
Cite this paper
Adediji, A. and Ibitoye, M. (2013) Urban Gully Development in Southwestern Nigeria. Positioning, 4, 183-191. doi: 10.4236/pos.2013.42018.
 I. Ionita, “Gully Development in Moldarian Plateaus of Romania,” Journal of Environmental Management, Vol. 68, No. 2-3, 2006, pp. 133-140.
 A. M. J. Meijerink, H. A. M. Brouwer, C. M. Mannaerts and C. Velenzuela, “Introduction to the Use of Geographical Information Systems for Practical Hydrology,” ITC, Vol. 23, No. 2, 1994, p. 243.
 M. Marker and A. Sidorchuk, “Assessment of Gully Erosion Process Dynamics for Water Resources Management in a Semi Arid Catchment of Swaziland (South Africa). Erosion Production in Unganged Basins,” IANS, Vol. 279, No. 1, 2003, pp. 188-198.
 E. A. Bettis III, “Gully Erosion,” Iowa Department Survey No. 8, Iowa Department of Natural Resources, Iowa, 1983.
 H. K. Watson and R. Ramokgopa, “Factors Influencing the Distribution of Gully Erosion in Kwazulu Natal’s Mfolozi Catchment—Land Reform Implication in South Africa,” Journal of Land Degradation and Development, Vol. 10. No. 1, 1997, pp. 223-230.
 R. Ledger, “Urban Gully Erosion in USSR, JSTOR,” CATENA, Vol. 8, No. 1, 1968, pp. 22-29.
 L. K. Jeje, “Soil Erosion Characteristics, Processing and Extent in the Lowland Rainforest Area of Southwestern Nigeria,” In: V. O. Sagua, E. E. Enabor, G. E. K. Ofomata, K. O. Ologe and O. Lekan, Eds., Ecological Disaster in Nigeria: Soil Erosion, Federal Ministry of Science and Technology, Lagos, 1988, pp. 69-83.
 L. K. Jeje, “Urbanization and Accelerated Erosion: The Case of Efon Alaaye, Ondo State, Nigeria,” Paper Presented at Scope—IUGS Workshop on Earth Surface Processes, Material Use and Urban Development, Understanding the Human Contribution to Global Geomorphological Change, Spain, March 1995.
 L. K. Jeje, “Urbanization and Accelerated Erosion: Examples from Southwestern Nigeria,” Environmental Management Journal, Vol. 2, No. 1, 2005, pp. 1-17.
 T. O. Okoye, “Urbanization, and Erosion with Particular Reference to Aba,” In: V. O. Sagua, E. E. Enabor, G. E. K. Ofomata, K. O. Ologe and O. Lekan, Eds., Ecological Disaster in Nigeria: Soil Erosion, Federal Ministry of Science and Technology, Lagos, 1988, pp. 265-275.
 L. K. Jeje and S. I. Ikeazota, “Effects of Urbanization on Channel Morphology: The Case of Ekulu River in Enugu, Southeastern Nigeria,” Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography, Vol. 23, No. 1, 2002, pp. 37-51.
 A. Adediji and L. K. Jeje, “Channel Erosion in the Opa Basin, Southwestern Nigeria,” Journal of Environmental Hydrology, Vol. 12, No. 10, 2004, pp. 1-11.
 S. F. Ebisemiju, “The Response of Headwater Channels to Urbanization in the Humid Tropics,” Hydrological Processes, Vol. 3, No. 3, 1989, pp. 237-253.
 S. F. Ebisemiju, “Patterns of Stream Channel Response to Urbanization in the Humid Tropics and Their Implications for Urban Land Use Planning: A Case Study of Southwestern Nigeria,” Applied Geography, Vol. 9, No. 4, 1989, pp. 273-286. doi:10.1016/0143-6228(89)90028-3
 R. O. Oyegun, “Sediment Redistribution in Ilorin, Nigeria,” The Environmentalist, Vol. 7, No. 2, 1987, pp. 259-268. doi:10.1007/BF02240295
 H. I. Jimoh, “Tropical Rainfall Events on Erosion Rates in a Rapidly Developing Urban Area in Nigeria,” Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography, Vol. 26, No. 1, 2005, pp. 74-81. doi:10.1111/j.0129-7619.2005.00205.x
 H. I. Jimoh, “Individual Rainfall and Sediment Generation in Different Surfaces in Ilorin, Nigeria,” Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, 1997.
 A. Y. B. Anifowose, “The Performance of Some Soils under Stabilization in Ondo State Nigeria,” Engineering Geology, Vol. 40, No. 1, 1989, pp. 79-83.
 A. A. Elueze, “Geology of Precambrian Schist in Ilesa Area, Southwestern Nigeria,” In: P. O. Oluyide, W. C. Mbona, A. E. Ogezi, I. G. Egbuniwe, A. C. Ajibade and A. C. Umeji, Eds., Precambrian Geology of Nigeria, Geological Survey of Nigeria, Nigerian Geological Survey Department, Kaduna, 1988, pp. 77-82.
 J. O. Adejuwon and L. K. Jeje, “Land Element of the Environmental System of Ife Area,” University of Ife, Ile-Ife, 1975.
 R. K. Udoh, “A Comprehensive Geography of West Africa,” Heinemann Educational Books (Nigeria) Ltd., Ibadan, 1978, pp. 22-27.
 O. T. Odekunle, “Rainfall Characteristics in Ondo Town, Southwest Nigeria,” Unpublished M.Sc Thesis, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, 1997.
 J. O. Adejuwon, “Agricultural Colonization in the 20th Century in Western Nigeria: Distribution and Vegetation Characteristics,” Journal of Tropical Geography, Vol. 39, 1971, pp. 1-10.
 O. O. Areola, “Soil and Vegetal Resources,” In: J. S. Oguntoyinbo, O. O. Areola and M. Filani, Eds., A Geography of Nigerian Development, 2nd Edition, Heinemann Educational Book (Nig.) Ltd., Ibadan, 1983, pp. 105-126.
 G. E. K. Ofomata, “Classification of Soil Erosion with Specific Reference to Anambra State, Nigeria,” Environmental Review, Vol. 3, No. 2, 2000, pp. 252-255.
 M. Nasri, S. Feiznia, M. Jafari and H. Ahmad, “Using Filed Indices of Rill and Gully in Order to Estimate Erosion and Sediment Analysis. The Case Study of Menderjan Watershed in Isfahan Province, Iran,” Proceedings of World Academy of Science, Engineering Technology, Vol. 33, 2008, pp. 225-231.
 R. H. Dugdale, “Surveying,” George Godwin Ltd., London, 1980.
 A. Bannister and S. Raymond, “Surveying,” Longman Scientific and Technical, London.
 United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), “Handbook on Soil Survey, Field and Laboratory Methods,” Report No. 1, 2009.
 G. I. Bouyoucos, “Hydrometer Method Improved for Making Particle Size Analysis of Soil,” Agronomy Journal, Vol. 54, No. 5, 1962, pp. 464-465.
 M. O. Ibitoye, “Evaluation of Urban Gullies Characteristics in Southwestern Nigeria,” Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis. Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, 2012, pp. 67-145.
 O. Babalola, “Soil Properties Affecting Infiltration, Runoff and Erodibility,” In: V. O. Sagua, E. E. Enabor, G. E. K. Ofomata, K. O. Ologe and L. Oyebande, Eds., Ecological Disaster in Nigeria: Soil Erosion, Federal Ministry of Science and Technology, Lagos, 1988, pp. 69-83.
 D. Hagan, F. Escobedo, G. Toor, H. Mayer, J. Klein and C. Dobbs, “Soil Bulk Density and Organic Matters in Urban MiamiDade Country, Florida, IFAS,” University of Florida, Florida, 2010.
 J. H. Gregory, M. D. Dukes, P. H. Jones and L. Miller, “Effect of Urban Soil Compaction on Infiltration Rate,” Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, Vol. 6, No. 1, 2006, pp. 117-124.
 A. J. T. Guerra, R. Sathler, S. P. Mendes, S. L. S. Silva, T. T. Guerra, I. H. M. Araujo and S. Lima, “Urban Gully Assessment in Sao Louis City (Maranhao State) Brazil, Using Penetrometer Data and Soil Properties,” Tropical and Subtropical Geomorphology, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 1-10.
 P. Pathak, S. P. Wani and R. Sudi, “Gully Control in Semi Arid Tropic (SAT) Watersheds,” Journal of International Crop Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics (CRISAT), Vol. 2, No. 1, 2005, pp. 22-27.