APD  Vol.2 No.2 , May 2013
Three-year caregiver’s reports on driving performance: A divination or diagnostic tool for fitness to drive in Parkinson Disease patients
Abstract: Objectives: This study aims to examine whether information provided by spouse or relatives can be employed to identify PD patients with deteriorated driving performance, using three-year caregiver’s reports on their driving ability as the outcome measure. Methods: Fifty-three idiopathic PD subjects were assessed on open roads. Prior to the driving assessment, participants were examined by a geriatrician with various clinical assessments. The caregivers filled out a questionnaire, the scores of which is a reflection of their concern on driving performanceof their PD relatives. The same measurements were collected for the subsequent two years. Hierarchical Poisson regression analysis, adjusting for gender, age and driving exposure (hours of driving per week), was then undertaken to determine whether the measures of driving assessment were associated with the score of the questionnaire. Results: During the three-year period, all PD participants were rated at least 3 questions positive in the caregiver’s questionnaire; the worst participant was rated positive eight times. Except the assessment criteria to gauge thetraffic rulesandregulations compliance,all other measures of the driving assessment were found to be significantly associated with the information provided by the caregivers. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that the information provided by caregivers was useful to identify PD patients with deteriorated driving performance. If adopted as part of the off-road driving assessment for PD patients, the questionnaire can provide reliable information to clinicians.
Cite this paper: Lee, H. (2013) Three-year caregiver’s reports on driving performance: A divination or diagnostic tool for fitness to drive in Parkinson Disease patients. Advances in Parkinson's Disease, 2, 47-52. doi: 10.4236/apd.2013.22009.

[1]   Access Economics (2010) Federal policy initiatives: A new approach to Parkinson’s disease. Parkinson’s Australia, Melbourne.

[2]   Evans, L. (2006) Traffic safety. 2nd Edition, Science Serving Society, Michigan.

[3]   Molnar, A., Marshall, H.L. and Man-Son-Hing, K. (2006) Clinical utility of office based cognitive predictors of fitness to drive in persons with dementia: A systematic review. Journal of American Geriatrics Society, 54, 1809-1824. doi:10.1111/j.1532-5415.2006.00967.x

[4]   Lavezza, A. and Martin, S.L. (2006) The clinical evaluation of psychosocial factors. In: Pellerito, J.M., Ed., Driver Rehabilitation and Community Mobility, Elsevier Mosby St. Louis, 153-161.

[5]   Amick, M.M., Grace, J. and Ott, B.R. (2007) Visual and cognitive predictors of driving safety in Parkinson’s disease patients. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 22, 957-967. doi:10.1016/j.acn.2007.07.004

[6]   Siren, A., Hakamies-Blomqvist, L. and Lindeman, M. (2004) Driving cessation and health in older women. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 23, 58-69. doi:10.1177/0733464804263129

[7]   Lee, H., Cameron, D. and Lee, A. (2003) Assessing the driving performance of older adult drivers: On-road versus simulated driving. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 35, 797-803. doi:10.1016/S0001-4575(02)00083-0

[8]   Cordell, R., Lee, H.C., Granger, A., Vieira, B. and Lee, A. H. (2008) Driving assessment in Parkinson’s disease: A novel predictor of performance. Movement Disorders, 23, 1217-1222. doi:10.1002/mds.21762

[9]   Tr?ster, A.I. and Woods, S.P. (2007) Neuropsychological aspects. In: Pahwa, R. and Lyons, K.E., Eds., Handbook of Parkinson’s Disease, 4th Edition, Informa Healthcare, New York, 109-130.

[10]   Stolwyk, R.J., Triggs, T.J., Charlton, J.L., Lansek, R. and Bradshaw, J.L. (2005) Impact of internal versus external cueing on driving performance in people with Parkinson’s disease. Movement Disorder, 20, 846-857. doi:10.1002/mds.20420

[11]   Innes, C.R.H., Jones, R.D., Anderson, T.J., Hollobon, S.G. and Dalrymple-Alford, J.C. (2009) Performance in normal subjects on a novel battery of driving-related sensory-motor and cognitive tests. Behaviour Research Methods, 41, 284-894. doi:10.3758/BRM.41.2.284

[12]   Bedard, M., Parkkari, M., Weaver, B., Riendeau, J. and Dahlquist, M. (2010) Assessment of driving performance using a simulator protocol: Validity and reproducibility. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 64, 336-340. doi:10.5014/ajot.64.2.336

[13]   Adler, G., Rottunda, S., Bauer, M. and Kuskowski, M. (2000) The older driver with Parkinson’s Disease. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 34, 39-49. doi:10.1300/J083v34n02_05

[14]   National Road Transport Commission (2003) Assessing fitness to drive. 3rd Edition, Austroads Incorporated, Sydney.

[15]   Michon, J.A. (1985) A critical review of driver behaviour models: What do we know, what should we do? In: Evans, L. and Schwing, R.C., Eds., Human Behaviour and Traffic Safety, Plenum, New York, 485-520. doi:10.1007/978-1-4613-2173-6_19

[16]   Stata Corporation (2009) STATA release 10. Stata Corporation, College Station.

[17]   Hardin, J.W. and Hilbe, J.M. (2002) Generalized estimating equations. CRC, Boca Raton. doi:10.1201/9781420035285