OJE  Vol.3 No.2 , May 2013
Effects of temperature and resource abundance on small- and large-bodied cladocerans: Community stability and species replacement
Abstract: Understanding when small- or large-bodied cladocerans dominate zooplankton communities has received considerable debate over the past 50 years. While a large body of research has proposed that large-bodied species are superior competitors over small-bodied species, other studies have shown that small-bodied species can dominate at least under some environmental conditions. We tested the hypothesis that dominance by small- and large-bodied cladocerans varied in response to the coupled effects of food supply and temperature. Laboratory experiments with poly- and monocultures of small- and large-bodied cladocerans were performed at three temperatures (16°C, 22°C and 27°C) and with varying amounts of food supply. The results of the experiments showed that the small-bodied species (Ceriodaphnia quadrangula) dominated at low food supply and higher temperature, while the large-bodied species (Daphnia magna and Daphnia pulex) in contrast dominated at lower temperature and higher food supply. Furthermore, although there were variations in the relative biomass of the small- and large-bodied cladocerans in the polycultures, C. quandrangula replaced the two larger Daphnia species when they declined in biomass at low food supply. Species replacement in response to temperature and food supply helped to maintain the relatively constant level of total cladoceran biomass in the polycultures which was the most pronounced at the intermediate temperature. We suggest that the observed changes in dominance were similar to facilitative replacement rather than competitive exclusion. Physiological processes such as clearance rates can help to promote the succession of large- and small- bodied populations within a community along gradients of temperature and food availability.
Cite this paper: Feniova, I. , Palash, A. , Razlutskij, V. and Dzialowski, A. (2013) Effects of temperature and resource abundance on small- and large-bodied cladocerans: Community stability and species replacement. Open Journal of Ecology, 3, 164-171. doi: 10.4236/oje.2013.32020.

[1]   Brooks, J.L. and Dodson, S.I. (1965) Predation, body size and composition of plankton. Science, 150, 28-35. doi:10.1126/science.150.3692.28

[2]   Achenbach, L. and Lampert, W. (1997) Effects of elevated temperatures on threshold food concentrations and possible competitive abilities of differently sized cladoceran species. Oikos, 79, 469-476. doi:10.2307/3546889

[3]   Gliwicz, Z.M. (2003) Between hazards of starvation and risk of predation: The ecology of offshore animals. International Ecology Institute, Oldendorf/Luhe.

[4]   Hanski, I. and Ranta, E. (1983) Coexistence in a patchy environment: Three species of Daphnia in rock pools. Journal of Animal Ecology, 52, 263-279. doi:10.2307/4599

[5]   Foran, A.F. (1986) A comparison of the life history features of a temperate and a subtropical Daphnia species. Oikos, 46, 185-193. doi:10.2307/3565466

[6]   Romanovsky, Y.E. and Feniova, I.Yu. (1985) Competitiona among cladocera: Effect of differentl evels of food supply. Oikos, 44, 243-252. doi:10.2307/3544696

[7]   Dzialowski, A.R. and O’Brian, W.J. (2004) Is competition important to arctic zooplankton community structure? Freshwater Biology, 49, 1103-1111. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2427.2004.01250.x

[8]   Hu, S. and Tessier, A.J. (1995) Seasonal succession and the strength of intra- and interspecific competition in a Daphnia assemblage. Ecology, 76, 2279-2294. doi:10.2307/1941702

[9]   Caceras, C.E. (1998) Seasonal dynamics and interspecific competition in Oneida Lake Daphnia. Oecologia, 115, 233-244. doi:10.1007/s004420050512

[10]   Lennon, J.T., Smith, V.H. and Williams, K. (2001) Influence of temperature on exotic Daphnia lumholtzi and implications for invasion success. Journal of Plankton Research, 23, 425-434. doi:10.1093/plankt/23.4.425

[11]   Gyllstrom, M., Hansson, L.A., Jeppesen, E., Garcia-Criado, F., Gross, E., Irvine, K., Kairesalo, T., Kornijow, R., Miracle, M.R., Nykanen, M., Noges, T., Romo, S., Stephen, D., Van Donk, E. and Moss, B. (2005) The role of climate in shaping zooplankton communities of shallow lakes. Limnology and Oceanography, 50, 2008-2021.

[12]   Thompson, P.L., St-Jacques, M.-C. and Vinebrooke, R.D. (2008) Impacts of climate warming and nitrogen deposition on alpine plankton in lake and pond habitats: An in vitro experiment. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, 40, 192-198. doi:10.1657/1523-0430(06-105)[THOMPSON]2.0.CO;2

[13]   Moore, M.V., Folt, C.L. and Stemberger, R.S. (1996) Consequences of elevated temperatures for zooplankton assemblages in temperate lakes. Archiv für Hydrobiologie, 135, 289-319.

[14]   Sarma, S.S.S., Nandini, S. and Gulati, R.D. (2005) Life history strategies of cladocerans: Comparisons of tropical and temperate taxa. Hydrobiologia, 542, 315-333. doi:10.1007/s10750-004-3247-2

[15]   Pinto-Coelho, R., Pinel-Alloul, B., Methot, G. and Havens, K.E. (2005) Crustacean zooplankton in lakes and reservoirs of temperate and tropical regions: Variation with trophic status. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 62, 348-361. doi:10.1139/f04-178

[16]   Giebelhausen, B. and Lampert, W. (2001) Temperature reaction norms of Daphnia magna: The effect of food concentration. Freshwater Biology, 46, 281-289. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2427.2001.00630.x

[17]   Savage, V.M., Gillooly, J.F., Brown, J.H., West, G.B. and Charnov, E.L. (2004) Effects of body size and temperature on population growth. American Naturalist, 63, 429-441. doi:10.1086/381872

[18]   Tessier, A.J., Leibold, M.A. and Tsao, J. (2000) A fundamental trade-off in resource exploitation by Daphnia and consequences to plankton communities. Ecology, 81, 826-841. doi:10.1890/0012-9658(2000)081[0826:AFTOIR]2.0.CO;2

[19]   Orcutt, J.D. and Porter, K.G. (1984) The synergistic effects of temperature and food concentration on life history parameters of Daphnia. Oecologia, 63, 300-306. doi:10.1007/BF00390657

[20]   Gama-Flores, J.L., Huidobro-Salas, M.E., Sarma, S.S.S. and Nandini, S. (2011) Somatic and population growth responses of Ceriodaphnia dubia and Daphnia pulex (Cladocera) to changes in food (Chlorella vulgaris) level and temperature. Journal of Environmental Biology, 32, 489-495.

[21]   Wetzel, R.G. (2001) Limnology: Lake and river ecosystems. 3rd Edition, Academic press, London.

[22]   Balushkina, E.B. and Vinberg, G.G. (1979) Experimental and field studies of the productivity in the lakes. Nauka, Leningrad.

[23]   Lampert, W. (1978) A field study on the dependence of the fecundity of Daphnia on food concentration. Oecologia, 36, 363-369. doi:10.1007/BF00348062

[24]   Lampert, W. (1987) Laboratory studies on zooplankton-cyanobacteria interactions. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 21, 483-490. doi:10.1080/00288330.1987.9516244

[25]   Bloem, J. and Vijverberg, J. (1984) Some observations on the diet and food selection of Daphnia hyalina (Cladocera) in an eutrophic lake. Hydrobiological Bulletin, 18, 39-45. doi:10.1007/BF02256672

[26]   Dawidowicz, P. (1990) The effect of Daphnia on filament length of blue-green algae. Hydrobiologia, 191, 265-268. doi:10.1007/BF00026061

[27]   Feniova, I.Yu. and Zilitinkevich, N.S. (2012) Dependence of demographic parameters and results of competition on temperature in cladocerans. Russian Journal of Ecology, 43, 131-136. doi:10.1134/S1067413612010055

[28]   Steiner, C.F. (2005) Temporal stability of pond zooplankton assemblages. Freshwater Biology, 50, 105-112. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2427.2004.01310.x

[29]   Doak, D.F., Bigger, D., Harding, E.K., Marvier, M.A., O’Malley, R.E. and Thomson, D. (1998) The statistical inevitability of stability-diversity relationships in community ecology. American Naturalist, 151, 264-276. doi:10.1086/286117

[30]   Tilman, D., Lehman, C. and Bristow, C.E. (1998) Diversity stability relationships: Statistical inevitability or ecological consequence? American Naturalist, 151, 277-282. doi:10.1086/286118

[31]   Rodriguez, L.F. (2006) Can invasive species facilitate native species? Evidence of how, when, and why these impacts occur. Biological Invasions, 8, 927-939. doi:10.1007/s10530-005-5103-3

[32]   Sakwinska, O. (1998) Plasticity of Daphnia magna life history traits in response to temperature and information about a predator. Freshwater Biology, 39, 681-687. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2427.1998.00320.x

[33]   Lampert, W. and Trubetskova, I. (1996) Juvenile growth rate as a measure of fitness in Daphnia. Functional Ecology, 10, 631-635. doi:10.2307/2390173

[34]   Lynch, M. and Ennis, R. (1983) Resource availability, maternal effects, and longevity. Experimental Gerontology, 18, 147-165. doi:10.1016/0531-5565(83)90008-6

[35]   Dodson, S.I. and Frey, D.G. (2001) Cladocera and other branchiopoda In: Thorp, J.H. and Covich, A.P., Eds., Ecology and Classification of North American Freshwater Invertebrates, Academic Press, London, 850-914. doi:10.1016/B978-012690647-9/50022-3

[36]   Gophen, M. (1976) Temperature dependence of food intake, ammonia excretion and respiration in Ceriodaphnia reticulata (Jurine) (Lake Kinneret, Israel). Freshwater Biology, 6, 451-455. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2427.1976.tb01634.x

[37]   DeMott, W.R. (1989) The role of competition in zooplankton succession. In: Sommer, U., Ed., Plankton Ecology, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 195-252. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-74890-5_6

[38]   Holzapfel, A.M. and Vinebrooke, R.D. (2005) Environmental warming increases invasion potential of alpine lake communities by imported species. Global Change Biology, 11, 2009-2015. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2005.001057.x

[39]   Atkinson, D. (1994) Temperature and organism size a biological law for ectotherms? Advances in Ecological Research, 25, 1-58. doi:10.1016/S0065-2504(08)60212-3

[40]   Green, J. (1967) The distribution and variation of Daphnia lumholtzi (Crustacea: Cladocera) in relation to fish predation in Lake Albert, East Africa. Journal of Zoology (London), 151, 181-197. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1967.tb02872.x

[41]   Chapman, M.A. and Lewis, M.H. (1976) An introduction to the freshwater Crustacea of New Zealand. Harper-Collins Publishers Ltd, Auckland.

[42]   Venkataraman, K. (1981) Field and laboratory studies on Daphnia carinata King (Cladocera: Daphnidae) from a seasonal tropical pond. Hydrobiologia, 78, 221-225. doi:10.1007/BF00008518

[43]   Jonna, R. and Lehman, J.T. (2004) Invasion of Lake Victoria by the large bodied herbivorous cladoceran Daphnia magna. In: Odada, E.O. and Olago, D.O., Eds., The East African Great Lakes: Limnology, Palaeolimnology and Biodiversity. Springer, Netherlands, 321-333. doi:10.1007/0-306-48201-0_12

[44]   Dzialowski, A.R., O’Brian, W.J. and Swaffarl, S.M. (2000) Range expansion and potentially dispersal mechanisms of the exotic cladoceran Daphnia lumholtzi. Journal of Plankton Research, 22, 2205-2223. doi:10.1093/plankt/22.12.2205

[45]   Goulden, C. E., Henry, L.L. and Tessier, A.J. (1982) Body size, energy reserves and competitive ability in three species of Cladocera. Ecology, 63, 1780-1789. doi:10.2307/1940120