Back
 APE  Vol.3 No.2 , May 2013
Factors Associated with Teachers’ Recruitment and Continuous Engagement of External Coaches in School-Based Extracurricular Sports Activities: A Qualitative Study
Abstract: School-based extracurricular sports activity (SBECSA) has developed as an opportunity that adolescents play sports in Japan. However, there are some issues to maintain active SBECSA such as lack of teacher who can coach SBECSA expertly, and large imposition of teachers to manage SBECSA. For resolving these issues, promoting engagement of external coach is favorable. Nevertheless, the number of external coach has not been enough. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to explain facilitators and barriers related with teacher’s action for recruitment and handling with external coach, and expected qualification for external coach. Personal semi-structured interview was performed toward 22 teachers who worked in a public junior high school or a public high school. In the analysis of the present study, the KJ method―a type of qualitative analyses―was used. All transcribed data were divided into individual content and grouped together into small, middle and large categories. For facilitators, four large categories such as benefits to SBECSA, benefits to teachers, system and support were emerged. For barriers, four large categories such as negative influences on SBECSA, negative influences on teachers, system and support were grouped. For expected qualifications, five large categories such as humanity, ability, cooperativeness, attributions and trust were categorized. In conclusion, the present study identified various facilitators, barriers and expected qualifications. External coach would increase by enhancing facilitators, reducing barriers, and targeting human resource who meets expected qualifications.
Cite this paper: Aoyagi, K. , Ishii, K. , Shibata, A. , Arai, H. , Hibi, C. & Oka, K. (2013). Factors Associated with Teachers’ Recruitment and Continuous Engagement of External Coaches in School-Based Extracurricular Sports Activities: A Qualitative Study. Advances in Physical Education, 3, 62-70. doi: 10.4236/ape.2013.32010.
References

[1]   All Japan High School Athletic Federation (2012). News from head office. URL (last checked 17 January 2013).
http://www.zen-koutairen.com/f_publish.html

[2]   Cote, J., & Gilbert, W. (2009). An integrative definition of coaching effectiveness and expertise
International Journal of Sports Science and Coaching, 4, 307-322. doi:10.1260/174795409789623892

[3]   Dimec, T., & Kajtna, T. (2009). Psychological characteristics of younger and older coaches. Kinesiology,
41, 172-180.

[4]   Ehime Prefecture Board of Education (2011). Management guide of school-based extracurricular
sport activity. URL (last checked 17 January 2013).
http://ehime-c.esnet.ed.jp/hosupo/undoubukatudou/index.html

[5]   Farb, F. A., & Matjasko, L. J. (2012). Recent advances in research on school-based extracurricular
activities and adolescent development. Developmental Review, 32, 1-48. doi:10.1016/j.dr.2011.10.001

[6]   Ibaraki Prefecture Sports Promotion Council (2007). The way of future school-based extracurricular sport activity. URL (last checked 17 January 2013).
http://www.edu.pref.ibaraki.jp/board/bunspo/sports/setti/toushin.pdf

[7]   Japan Senior High School Teachers and Staff Union (2008). Final report of actual condition survey for issues of school-based extracurricular sport activity in 2006.

[8]   Kanagawa Prefectural Center of Physical Education (2007). As regards a way of future system of registration and mediation of coach. URL (last checked 17 January 2013).
http://www.pref.kanagawa.jp/uploaded/attachment/2426.pdf

[9]   Kanagawa Prefecture Board of Education (2008). Research report for sport activity of secondary school student. URL (last checked 17 January 2013).
http://www.pref.kanagawa.jp/uploaded/attachment/176796.pdf

[10]   Kawakita, J. (1970). Zoku hassouhou. Tokyo: Chuokoron-shinsha, Inc.

[11]   Macdonald, D. (2011). Like a fish in water: Physical education policy and practice in the era of neoliberal globalization. Quest, 63, 36-45.

[12]   Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan (1997). Report of investigative research for way of school based extracurricular sport activity. URL (last checked 17 January 2013).
http://www.mext.go.jp/b_menu/shingi/chousa/sports/001/toushin/971201.htm

[13]   Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan (2008). The course of study in junior high school. URL (last checked 17 January 2013).
http://www.mext.go.jp/a_menu/shotou/new-cs/youryou/1304424.htm

[14]   Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan (2009a). The course of study in higher school. URL (last checked 17 January 2013).
http://www.mext.go.jp/a_menu/shotou/new-cs/youryou/1304427.htm

[15]   Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan (2009b). White paper on education, culture, sports, science and technology. URL (last checked 17 January 2013).
http://www.mext.go.jp/b_menu/hakusho/html/hpab200901/1295623.htm

[16]   Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan (2010a). Outline of pupil guidance. Tokyo: Kyoiku-tosho, Co., Ltd.

[17]   Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan (2010b). Sport-oriented nation strategy: Sport community Japan. URL (last checked 17 January 2013).
http://www.mext.go.jp/a_menu/sports/rikkoku/1297182.htm

[18]   Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan (2011). Basic law of sports. URL (last checked 17 January 2013).
http://www.mext.go.jp/a_menu/sports/kihonhou/attach/1307658.htm

[19]   Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan (2012). National survey result of physical and athletic capacity. URL (last checked 17 January 2013).
http://www.mext.go.jp/b_menu/toukei/chousa04/tairyoku/kekka/k_detail/1326589.htm

[20]   Miyagi Prefecture Board of Education (2008). Research for school based extracurricular sport activity of secondary school.

[21]   Nakazawa, A. (2011). A postwar history of extracurricular sport activities in Japan (1): Focusing on the transition of the actual situation and policy. Hitotsubashi Bulletin of Social Sciences, 3, 25-46.

[22]   Nippon Junior High School Physical Culture Association (2010). Spread sheet of research for number of member school and student. URL (last checked 17 January 2013). http://www18.ocn.ne.jp/~njpa/pdf/h22gaibu2_mf.pdf

[23]   Nishijima, H., Yano, H., & Nakazawa, A. (2007). A sociological study of coaching and management of club activities in junior high schools: Based on a questionnaire survey to teachers of sports club activities in two prefectures and Tokyo metropolitan. Bulletin of Faculty of Education in the University of Tokyo, 47, 101-130.

[24]   Okatsu, S. (2011). Way of utilizing local human resource in SBECSA: Challenge of SBECSA external coach in Nagoya. Toho Gakushi, 40, 35-46. URL (last checked 17 January 2013).
http://www.aichi-toho.ac.jp/outline/files/201106004001_03.pdf

[25]   Sasakawa Sports Foundation (2011). Installation of sports leader bank in each prefecture. Sports White Paper: Future that Sports Should to Aspire, 86-88.

[26]   School-Based Extracurricular Sport Activity in Junior High School “Nagano Model” Exploratory Committee (2004). Proposal of school based extracurricular sport activity in junior high school “Nagano model”. URL (last checked 17 January 2013).
http://www.pref.nagano.lg.jp/kyouiku/taiiku/bukatu/teigen/teigen.pdf

[27]   Scupin, R. (1997). The KJ method: A technique for analyzing data derived from Japanese ethnology. Human Organization, 56, 233-237.

[28]   Setagaya Ward Board of Education (2009). “Support of SBECSA, detachment of school councilor” in Setagaya ward. URL (last checked 17 January 2013).
http://www.mext.go.jp/b_menu/shingi/chukyo/chukyo3/042/siryo/__icsFiles/afieldfile/2009/03/19/ 1247451_4

[29]   Shernoff, J. D., & Vandell, L. D. (2007). Engagement in after-school program activities: Quality of experience from the perspective of participants. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 36, 891-903. doi:10.1007/s10964-007-9183-5

[30]   Stewart, V., Lindsay, O., & Trevor, C. (2011). The role of the coach in facilitating positive youth development: Moving from theory to practice. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 23, 33-48. doi:10.1080/10413200.2010.511423

[31]   Tokyo Metropolitan Board of Education (2008). Companion of coaching school-based extracurricular activity for external coach. URL (last checked 17 January 2013).
http://www.kyoiku.metro.tokyo.jp/press/bukatsu_tebiki.pdf

[32]   Williams, J. B., Hay, J. P., & Macdonald, D. (2011). The outsourcing of health, sport and physical educational work: A state of play. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 16, 399-415. doi:10.1080/17408989.2011.582492

[33]   Yamagata Prefecture Board of Education (2010). As regards a way of future school-based extracurricular sport activity. URL (last checked 17 January 2013).
http://www.pref.yamagata.jp/ou/kyoiku/700021/21unndoubukatudouarikata.pdf

 
 
Top