Predicting the Neutron and Proton Masses Based on Baryons which Are Yang-Mills Magnetic Monopoles and Koide Mass Triplets

ABSTRACT

We show how the Koide relationships and associated triplet mass matrices can be generalized to derive the observed sum of the free neutron and proton rest masses in terms of the up and down current quark masses and the Fermi vev to six parts in 10,000. This sum can then be solved for the separate neutron and proton masses using the neutron minus proton mass difference derived by the author in a recent, separate paper. The oppositely-signed charges of the up and down quarks are responsible for the appearance of a complex phase exp(i*δ*) and real rotation angle *θ* which leads on an independent basis to mass and mixing matrices similar to that of Cabibbo, Kobayashi and Maskawa (CKM). These can then be used to specify the neutron and proton mass relationships to unlimited accuracy using *θ* as a nucleon fitting angle deduced from empirical data. This fitting angle is then shown to be related to an invariant of the CKM mixing angles within experimental errors. Also developed is a master mass and mixing matrix which may help to interconnect all baryon and quark masses and mixing angles. The Koide generalizations developed here enable these neutron and proton mass relationships to be given a Lagrangian formulation based on neutron and proton field strength tensors that contain vacuum-amplified and current quark wavefunctions and masses. In the course of development, we also uncover new Koide relationships for the neutrinos, the up quarks, and the down quarks.

Cite this paper

J. Yablon, "Predicting the Neutron and Proton Masses Based on Baryons which Are Yang-Mills Magnetic Monopoles and Koide Mass Triplets,"*Journal of Modern Physics*, Vol. 4 No. 4, 2013, pp. 127-150. doi: 10.4236/jmp.2013.44A013.

J. Yablon, "Predicting the Neutron and Proton Masses Based on Baryons which Are Yang-Mills Magnetic Monopoles and Koide Mass Triplets,"

References

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[6] Y. Koide, “Fermion-Boson Two-Body Model of Quarks and Leptons and Cabibbo Mixing,” Lettere al Nuovo Cimento, Vol. 34, No. 8, 1982, pp. 201-205. doi:10.1007/BF02817096

[7] http://pdg.lbl.gov/2012/tables/rpp2012-sum-leptons.pdf

[8] J. R. Yablon, “Grand Unified SU(8) Gauge Theory Based on Baryons which Are Yang-Mills Magnetic Monopoles,” Journal of Modern Physics, Vol. 4 No. 4A, 2013 (in press). http://vixra.org/abs/1301.0075

[9] http://pdg.lbl.gov/2012/listings/rpp2012-list-neutrinoprop.pdf

[10] http://pdg.lb.gov/2012/tables/rpp2012-sum-quarks.pdf

[11] A. Rivero, “A New Koide Tuple: Strange-Charm-Bottom,” 2011. http://arxiv.org/abs/1111.7232

[12] http://cerncourier.com/cws/article/cern/29651

[13] M. Cresti, G. Pasquali, L. Peruzzo, C. Pinori and G. Sartori, “Measurement of the Antineutron Mass,” Physics Letters B, Vol. 177, No. 2, 1986, pp. 206-210. doi:10.1016/0370-2693(86)91058-0

[14] http://pdg.lbl.gov/2012/reviews/rpp2012-rev-ckm-matrix.pdf

[15] J. E. Kim and M.-S. Seo, “A Simple Expression of the Jarlskog Determinant,” 2012. http://arxiv.org/abs/1201.3005

[16] F. Halzen and A. D. Martin, “Quarks and Leptons: An Introductory Course in Modern Particle Physics,” John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, 1984.

[1] J. R. Yablon, “Why Baryons Are Yang-Mills Magnetic Monopoles,” Hadronic Journal, Vol. 35, No. 4, 2012, pp. 399-467.

[2] G. t’Hooft, “Magnetic Monopoles in Unified Gauge Theories,” Nuclear Physics B, Vol. 79, No. 2, 1974, pp. 276-284. doi:10.1016/0550-3213(74)90486-6

[3] H. C. Ohanian, “What Is Spin?” American Journal of Physics, Vol. 54, No. 6, 1986, pp. 500-505. doi:10.1119/1.14580

[4] http://www.tau.ac.il/~elicomay/emc.html

[5] J. R. Yablon, “Predicting the Binding Energies of the 1s Nuclides with High Precision, Based on Baryons which Are Yang-Mills Magnetic Monopoles,” Journal of Modern Physics, Vol. 4 No. 4A, 2013 (in press). http://vixra.org/abs/1212.0165

[6] Y. Koide, “Fermion-Boson Two-Body Model of Quarks and Leptons and Cabibbo Mixing,” Lettere al Nuovo Cimento, Vol. 34, No. 8, 1982, pp. 201-205. doi:10.1007/BF02817096

[7] http://pdg.lbl.gov/2012/tables/rpp2012-sum-leptons.pdf

[8] J. R. Yablon, “Grand Unified SU(8) Gauge Theory Based on Baryons which Are Yang-Mills Magnetic Monopoles,” Journal of Modern Physics, Vol. 4 No. 4A, 2013 (in press). http://vixra.org/abs/1301.0075

[9] http://pdg.lbl.gov/2012/listings/rpp2012-list-neutrinoprop.pdf

[10] http://pdg.lb.gov/2012/tables/rpp2012-sum-quarks.pdf

[11] A. Rivero, “A New Koide Tuple: Strange-Charm-Bottom,” 2011. http://arxiv.org/abs/1111.7232

[12] http://cerncourier.com/cws/article/cern/29651

[13] M. Cresti, G. Pasquali, L. Peruzzo, C. Pinori and G. Sartori, “Measurement of the Antineutron Mass,” Physics Letters B, Vol. 177, No. 2, 1986, pp. 206-210. doi:10.1016/0370-2693(86)91058-0

[14] http://pdg.lbl.gov/2012/reviews/rpp2012-rev-ckm-matrix.pdf

[15] J. E. Kim and M.-S. Seo, “A Simple Expression of the Jarlskog Determinant,” 2012. http://arxiv.org/abs/1201.3005

[16] F. Halzen and A. D. Martin, “Quarks and Leptons: An Introductory Course in Modern Particle Physics,” John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, 1984.