ASM  Vol.3 No.2 , April 2013
Pheromones in Human Urine: A Study

The present study was conducted to understand if pheromone or any similar substance was present in human semen and whether it could be recognized by smell. One hundred and fifty two subjects of either sex participated in this study. The study lasted for one month. They were to identify urine by smell. Daily first urine sample was submitted by five male and five female subjects for this study. Menstrual status of female subjects was recorded. Many distinguished the smell of urine of male from that of female. Interestingly male subjects recognized the smell of female urine of ovulation day. Reason may be pheromone. A woman may be releasing maximally pheromone on this day. This supports the theory of pheromone which attracts a man to a woman on her ovulation day.

Cite this paper: K. Skandhan, S. Amith, H. Vadodaria, B. Mazumdar, K. Dhuri and M. Gondalia, "Pheromones in Human Urine: A Study," Advances in Sexual Medicine, Vol. 3 No. 2, 2013, pp. 35-38. doi: 10.4236/asm.2013.32007.

[1]   R. Mykytoncyz, “Some Difficulties in the Study of the Function and Composition of Semochemicals in Mammals, Particularly Wild Rabbits, Oryctolagus cuniculus,” In: F. J. Rifter, Ed., Chemical Ecology: Odour Communication in Animals, Elsevier North Holland Biochemical Press, Amsterdam, 1979.

[2]   R. P. Michael and J. Herbert, “Menstural Cycle Influence Grooming Behavior and Sexual Activity in Rhesus Monkey,” Science, Vol. 140, No. 3566, 1963, pp. 500-501. doi:10.1126/science.140.3566.500

[3]   R. P. Michael and E. B. Keverne, “Primate Sex Hormones of Vaginal Origin,” Nature, Vol. 225, No. 5227, 1970, pp. 84-85. doi:10.1038/225084a0

[4]   M. G. Kalogerakis, “The Role of Olfaction in Sexual Development,” Psychosomatic Medicine, Vol. 25, No. 5, 1963, pp. 420-432.

[5]   J. S. Vierling and J. Rock, “Variation in Olfactory Sensitivity to Exaltolide during Menstrual Cycle,” Journal of Applied Physiology, Vol. 22, No. 2, 1967, pp. 311-315.

[6]   D. Benton, “The Influence of Androstenol—A Putative Human Pheromone on Mod throughout Menstrual Cycle,” Biological Psychology, Vol. 15, No. 3-4, 1982, pp. 249-256. doi:10.1016/0301-0511(82)90047-3

[7]   M. C. Mc Clintock, “Menstrual Synchrony and Suppression,” Nature, Vol. 229, 1971, pp. 244-248. doi:10.1038/229244a0

[8]   K. P. Skandhan, A. K. Pandya, S. Skandhan and Y. B. Mehta, “Syncronization of Menstruation among Intimates and Kindreds,” Panminerva Medica, Vol. 21, No. 3, 1979, pp. 131-134.

[9]   J. L. Veith, M. Buck and S. Getzaf, “Exposure to Men Influence the Occurance of Ovulation in Women,” Physiology & Behavior, Vol. 31, No. 3, 1983, pp. 313-315. doi:10.1016/0031-9384(83)90194-4

[10]   B. Nicholson, “Does Kissing Aid Human Bonding by Semochemical Addiction?” British Journal of Dermatology, Vol. 111, No. 5, 1984, pp. 623-627. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2133.1984.tb06635.x

[11]   K. Grammer, B. Fink and N. Neave, “Human Pheromones and Sexual Attraction,” European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Vol. 118, No. 2, 2005, pp. 135-142. doi:10.1016/j.ejogrb.2004.08.010

[12]   K. P. Skandhan, O. Kaoru, B. M. Mukund and B. Sumangala, “Place of Pheromone in Rape,” Advances in Sexual Medicine, Vol. 3, No. 1, 2013, pp. 24-27. doi:10.4236/asm.2013.31005

[13]   J. J. Sokolov, R. T. Harris and M. R. Hecker, “Isolation of Substances from Vaginal Secretions Previously Shown to Be Sex Attractant Pheromones in Higher Primates,” Archives of Sexual Behavior, Vol. 5, No. 4, 1976, pp. 269-274. doi:10.1007/BF01542078

[14]   E. O. Wilson and W. H. Bossert, “Chemical Communication among Animals,” Recent Progress in Hormone Research, Vol. 19, 1963, pp. 673-716.

[15]   H. Varendi, R. H. Porter and J. Winberg, “Does the New-born Baby Find the Nipple by Smell?” Lancet, Vol. 344, No. 8928, 1994, pp. 989-990. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(94)91645-4

[16]   F. Bonnin, C. Taillard and H. Montagner, “Abilities of the Mothers to Discriminate the Corporeal Odour of Their Newborn,” European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Vol. 19, 1990, pp. 165-170.

[17]   A. Macfarlane, “Olfaction in the Development of Social Preferences in the Human Neonate,” In: R. Porter and M. O’Connor, Eds., Parent Infant Interaction (Ciba Foundation Symposium 33), Elsevier, New York, 1975.

[18]   A. Wellar and L. Wellar, “Menstrual Synchrony in Female Couples,” Psychoneuroendocrinology, Vol. 17, No. 2-3, 1972, pp. 171-177. doi:10.1016/0306-4530(92)90055-C

[19]   B. M. Pause, “Is the Human Skin a Pheromone Producing Organ?” Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology, Vol. 3, No. 4, 2004, pp. 223-228. doi:10.1111/j.1473-2130.2004.00106.x

[20]   D. Troiter, “Vomeronasal Organ and Pheromone,” European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases, Vol. 128, No. 4, 2011, pp. 184-190. doi:10.1016/j.anorl.2010.11.008

[21]   C. J. Dominic and C. D. Pandey, “Failure of Deodorized Males to Induce Estrous in the Wild Mouse,” Annales D’Endocrinologie, Vol. 40, No. 3, 1979, pp. 229-234.

[22]   H. Jesel and C. Aron, “The Role of Pheromones in the Regulation of Estrous Cycle Duration in the Guinea Pig,” Neuroendocrinology, Vol. 20, No. 2, 1976, pp. 97-100.

[23]   F. H. Bronson and J. A. Maruniak, “Differential Effects of Male Stimuli on FSH Handprolactin Secretion in Prepubertal Female Mice,” Endocrinology, Vol. 98, No. 5, 1976, pp. 1101-1108. doi:10.1210/endo-98-5-1101

[24]   L. C. Drickamar, “Delay of Sexual Maturation in Female House Mice by Exposure to Grouped Female or Urine from Grouped Female,” Journal of Reproduction & Fertility, Vol. 51, No. 1, 1977, pp. 77-81. doi:10.1530/jrf.0.0510077

[25]   L. C. Drickamar, “Seasonal Variation in Acceleration and Delay of Sexual Maturation in Female Mice by Urinary Chemosignals,” Journal of Reproduction & Fertility, Vol. 72, No. 1, 1984, pp. 55-58. doi:10.1530/jrf.0.0720055

[26]   W. B. Cutler, E. Friedmann and N. L. Mc Coy, “Pheromonal Influences on Sociosexual Behavior in Men,” Archives of Sexual Behavior, Vol. 27, No. 1, 1998, pp. 1-13. doi:10.1023/A:1018637907321

[27]   A. S. Parks, “Patterns of Sexuality and Reproduction,” Oxford University Press, London, 1976.

[28]   R. L. Doty, M. Ford, G. Preti and G. R. Huggins, “Changes in the Intensity and Pleasantness of Human Vaginal Odours during Menstrual Cycle,” Science, Vol. 190, No. 4221, 1975, pp. 1316-1318. doi:10.1126/science.1239080

[29]   R. Burton, “The Language of Smell,” Routledge and Kegan Paul, London, 1976.

[30]   L. Keith, A. Dravnikes and B. K. Krotoszynski, “Olfactory Study. Human Pheromones,” Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Vol. 218, No. 3, 1975, pp. 203-204.

[31]   R. P. Michael, “Primate,” In: C. R. Carpenter, Ed., Proceed Second Int Cong, S. Karger, Switzerland, 1969.

[32]   W. B. Cutler, C. R. Garcia, G. R. Huggins and G. Preti, “Sexual Behavior and Steroid Levels among Gynecologically Mature Premonopasual Women,” Fertility and Sterility, Vol. 45, No. 4, 1986, pp. 496-502.

[33]   K. P. Skandhan, A. Rajahariprasad and B. Sumangala, “Support for Human Estrus: Documentation in Ayurveda,” The Journal of Sexual Medicine, Vol. 9, No. 1, 2012, pp. 322-325. doi:10.1111/j.1743-6109.2011.02377.x