Predicting the Binding Energies of the 1s Nuclides with High Precision, Based on Baryons which Are Yang-Mills Magnetic Monopoles

ABSTRACT

In an earlier paper, the author employed the thesis that baryons are Yang-Mills magnetic monopoles and that proton and neutron binding energies are determined based on their up and down current quark masses to predict a relationship among the electron and up and down quark masses within experimental errors and to obtain a very accurate relationship for nuclear binding energies generally and for the binding of ^{56}Fe in particular. The free proton and neutron were understood to each contain intrinsic binding energies which confine their quarks, wherein some or most (never all) of this energy is released for binding when they are fused into composite nuclides. The purpose of this paper is to further advance this thesis by seeing whether it can explain the specific empirical binding energies of the light 1s nuclides, namely, ^{2}H, ^{3}H, ^{3}He and ^{4}He, with high precision. As the method to achieve this, we show how these 1s binding energies are in fact the components of inner and outer tensor products of Yang-Mills matrices which are implicit in the expressions for these intrinsic binding energies. The result is that the binding energies for the ^{4}He, ^{3}He and ^{3}H nucleons are respectively, independently, explained to less than four parts in one million, four parts in 100,000, and seven parts in one million, all in AMU. Further, we are able to exactly relate the neutron minus proton mass difference to a function of the up and down current quark masses, which in turn enables us to explain the ^{2}H binding energy most precisely of all, to just over 8 parts in ten million. These energies have never before been theoretically explained with such accuracy, which leads to the conclusion that the underlying thesis provides the strongest theoretical explanation to date of what baryons are, and of how protons and neutrons confine their quarks and bind together into composite nuclides. As is also reviewed in Section 9, these results may lay the foundation for more easily catalyzing nuclear fusion energy release.

Cite this paper

J. Yablon, "Predicting the Binding Energies of the 1s Nuclides with High Precision, Based on Baryons which Are Yang-Mills Magnetic Monopoles,"*Journal of Modern Physics*, Vol. 4 No. 4, 2013, pp. 70-93. doi: 10.4236/jmp.2013.44A010.

J. Yablon, "Predicting the Binding Energies of the 1s Nuclides with High Precision, Based on Baryons which Are Yang-Mills Magnetic Monopoles,"

References

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[1] J. R. Yablon, “Why Baryons Are Yang-Mills Magnetic Monopoles,” Hadronic Journal, Vol. 35, No. 4, 2012, pp. 401-468. http://www.hadronicpress.com/issues/HJ/VOL35/HJ-35-4.pdf

[2] G. t’Hooft, “Magnetic Monopoles in Unified Gauge Theories,” Nuclear Physics B, Vol. 79, 1974, pp. 276-284. doi:10.1016/0550-3213(74)90486-6

[3] A. M. Polyakov, “Particle Spectrum in the Quantum Field Theory,” JETP Letters, Vol. 20, 1974, pp. 194-195.

[4] H. C. Ohanian, “What Is Spin?” American Journal of Physics, Vol. 54, No. 6, 1986, pp. 500-505. doi:10.1119/1.14580

[5] F. Halzen and A. D. Martin, “Quarks and Leptons: An Introductory Course in Modern Particle Physics,” John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, 1984.

[6] T.-P. Cheng and L.-F. Li, “Gauge Theory of Elementary Particle Physics,” Oxford, 1984.

[7] S. Weinberg, “The Quantum Theory of Fields, Volume II, Modern Applications,” Cambridge, 1996.

[8] G. E. Volovok, “The Universe in a Helium Droplet,” Clarendon Press, Oxford, 2003.

[9] H. Georgi and S. Glashow, “Unity of All Elementary-Particle Forces,” Physical Review Letters, Vol. 32, 1974, p. 438. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.32.438

[10] http://www.tau.ac.il/~elicomay/emc.html

[11] J. Beringer, et al., (Particle Data Group), “PR D86, 010001,” 2012. http://pdg.lbl.gov

[12] http://physics.nist.gov/cuu/Constants/index.html

[13] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Table_of_nuclides_(complete)

[14] http://library.thinkquest.org/3471/fusion.html