Increase in population growth and
the associated activities have increased the nutrient input to the Lake Victoria through atmosphere and river discharge.
Atmospheric input of nutrient is believed to exceed that of river discharge due
to relatively higher contribution of water mass to the Lake
from atmosphere. However, precipitation characteristics with respect to
nutrients have not been well studied to allow qualification and quantification
of atmospheric contribution to the Lake Victoria.
This study was conducted to investigate influence of land use activities on
spatial and temporal variation of nutrient inputs from atmosphere and to
estimate atmospheric loading to the Lake Victoria. The results revealed that there is significant
spatial and temporal variation of nutrient deposition in the study area. High
nutrients were observed during short rains starting from September to December.
This was attributed to dissolution of nutrients from soil particals and ash residues due to biomass
burning accumulated in the atmosphere during dry season of June to August.
Spatial variation of nutrients reflects land use activities. Urban and peri-urban
areas showed very high concentration of nitrate nitrogen due to industrial and
vehicle emission while rural area showed high concentration of phosphorous species and
reduced forms of nitrogen species reflecting agricultural activities and animal
Generally, nutrient deposition load was higher in rural area compared to urban
with respective values of 15.5 and 13.9
kg·haˉ1·yˉ1 for total nitrogen and 6.1 and 2.8 kg·haˉ1·yˉ1 for total phosphorous. These results suggest
that in order to realize significant reduction of nutrient input to the Lake Victoria, measures should be taken to control agricultural
activities through proper land use planning. The measure may be directed to
reduce biomass burning, emission from industries and vehicle as well as animal
Cite this paper
S. Vuai, J. Ibembe and N. Mungai, "Influence of Land Use Activities on Spatial and Temporal Variation of Nutrient Deposition in Mwanza Region: Implication to the Atmospheric Loading to the Lake Victoria," Atmospheric and Climate Sciences, Vol. 3 No. 2, 2013, pp. 224-234. doi: 10.4236/acs.2013.32024.
 R. K. Turner, S. Georgiou, I. M. Gren, F. Wulff, B. Scott, T. Soderqvist, I. J. Bateman, C. Folke, S. Langaas, T. Zylicz, K. G. Maler and A. Markowska, “Managing Nutrient Fluxes and Pollution in the Baltic: An Interdisciplinary Simulation Study,” Ecological Economics, Vol. 30, No. 2, 1999, pp. 333-352.
 N. R. Kulabako, M. Nalubega and R. Thunvik, “Phosphorus Transport in Shallow Groundwater in Peri-Urban Kampala, Uganda: Results from Field and Laboratory Measurements,” Environmental Geology, Vol. 53, No. 7, 2008, pp. 1535-1551. doi:10.1007/s00254-007-0764-0
 A. Beyene, W. Legesse, L. Triest and H. Kloos, “Urban Impact on Ecological Integrity of Nearby Rivers in Developing Countries: The Borkena River in Highland Ethiopia,” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Vol. 153, No. 1-4, 2009, pp. 461-476.
 COWI Consulting Engineers, “Integrated Water Quality/Limnology Study for Lake Victoria Environmental Management Project,” Part II Technical Report, 2002.
 R. A. Tamatamah, R. E. Hecky and H. C. Duthie, “The Atmospheric Deposition of Phosphorus in Lake Victoria (East Africa),” Biogeochemistry, Vol. 73, No. 2, 2005, pp. 325-344. doi:10.1007/s10533-004-0196-9
 R. A. Delmas, P. Loudjani, A. Podaire and J. Menaut, “Biomass Burning in Africa,” In: J. S. Levine, Ed., Global Biomass Burning. Atmospheric, Climatic and Biospheric Implications, The MIT Press, Cambridge, 1991. pp. 126-132.
 W. M. Hao and M. H. Liu, “Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Tropical Biomass Burning,” Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Vol. 8, No. 4, 1994, pp. 495-503.
 J. Rwetabula and F. De Smedt, “Landuse and Land Cover Mapping of the Simiyu Catchment (Tanzania) Using Remote Sensing Techniques,” FIG Working Week 2005 and GSDI-8, Cairo, 16-21 April 2005.
 X. Yin and S. E. Nicholson, “The Water Balance of Lake Victoria,” Hydrological Sciences Journal, Vol. 43, 1998, pp. 789-811.
 H. C. C. Meertens and P. M. Lupeja, “A Collection of Agricultural Background Information for Mwanza Region,” Kilimo/FAO Plant Nutrition Programme in Tanzania, Field Document No. GCPF/URT/106/NET, Mwanza, 1996, 74 p.
 T. R. Parsons, Y. Maita and C. M. Lalli, “A Manual of Chemical and Biological Methods of Seawater Analysis,” Pergamon, Oxford, 1984.
 H. Sakihama, M. Ishiki and A. Tokuyama, “Chemical Characteristics of Precipitation in Okinawa Island, Japan,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 42, No. 10, 2008, pp. 2320-2335. doi:10.1016/j.atmo senv.2007.12.026
 M. O. Andreae, “Global Distribution of Fires Seen from Space,” Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union, Vol. 74, No. 12, 1993, pp. 129-135.
 Y. Zhang, X. J. Liu, A. Fangmeier, K. T. W. Goulding and F. S. Zhang, “Nitrogen Inputs and Isotopes in Precipitation in the North China Plain,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 42, No. 7, 2008, pp. 1436-1448.
 N. Rastogi and M. M. Sarin, “Chemical Characteristics of Individual Rain Events from a Semi-Arid Region in India: Three-Year Study,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 39, No. 18, 2005, pp. 3313-3323.
 V. T. Langenberg, S. Nyamushahu, R. Roijackers and A. A. Koelmans, “External Nutrients Source for Lake Tanganyika,” Journal of Great Lakes Research, Vol. 29, No. 2, 2003, pp. 169-180.
 P. J. Crutzen and M. O. Andreae, “Biomass Burning in the Tropics: Impact on Atmospheric Chemistry and Biogeochemical Cycles,” Science, Vol. 250, No. 4988, 1990, pp. 1669-1678. doi:10.1126/science.250.4988.1669
 P. Artaxo, R. C. de Campos, E. T. Fernandes, J. V. Martins, Z. Xiao, O. Lindqvist, M. T. Fernandes-Jimenez and W. Maenhaut, “Large Scale Mercury and Trace Element Measurements in the Amazon Basin,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 34, No. 4, 2000, pp. 4085-4096.
 J. R. Scudlark, J. A. Jennings, M. J. Roadman, K. B. Savidge and W. J. Ullman, “Atmospheric Nitrogen Inputs to the Delaware Inland Bays: The Role of Ammonia,” Environmental Pollution, Vol. 135, No. 3, 2005, pp. 433-443. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2004.11.017
 H. W. Pearl and D. R. Whitally, “AnthropogenicallyDerived Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition, Marine Eutrophication and Harmful Algal Bloom Expansion: Is Thre a Link?” Ambio, Vol. 28, 1999, pp. 307-311.
 H. A. Bootsma, M. A. Bootsma and R. E. Hecky, “The Chemical Composition of Precipitation and Its Significance to the Nutrients Budget to Lake Malawi,” In: T. C. Johnson and E. Odada, Eds., Limnology Climatology and Paleoclimatology of the East African Lakes, Gordon and Breach Publishers, 1996, pp. 251-256.
 N. E. Peter and R. S. Reese, “Variation of Weekly Atmospheric Deposition for Multiple Collectors at a Site on the Shore of Lake Okeechobee, Florida,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 29, No. 2, 1995, pp. 179-187.
 K. M. Russel, J. N. Galloway, S. A. Macko, J. L. Moody and J. R. Scudlak, “Sources of Nitrogen in Wet Deposition to the Chesapeake Bay Region,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 32, No. 14-15, 1998, pp. 2453-2465.
 G. M. Marcos and J. F. G. Lancho, “Atmospheric Deposition in Oligotrophic Quercus Pyrenaica Forest: Implications for Forest Nutrition,” Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 171, No. 1-2, 2002, pp. 17-29.
 Y. W. Chan, C. X. Fan and M. Dokulil, “Changes of Nutrients and Phytoplankton Chlorophyll-a in a Large Shallow Lake, Taihu, China: An 8-Years Investigation,” Hydrobiologia, Vol. 506-509, No. 1-3, 2003, pp. 273-279.
 S. J. Guildford and R. E. Hecky, “Total Nitrogen, Total Phosphorus and Nutrient Limitation Inlakes and Oceans: Is There a Common Relationship?” Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 45, No. 6, 2000, pp. 1213-1223.
 M. J?rvinen, K. Salonen, J. Sarvala, K. Vuorio and A. Virtanen, “The Stoichiometry for Particulate Nutrients in Lake Tanganyika—Implications for Nutrient Limitation of Hytoplankton,” Hydrobiologia, Vol. 407, 1999, pp. 81-88. doi:10.1023/A:1003706002126
 T. J. Eklund, W. H. Mcdowell and C. M. Pringle, “Seasonal Variation of Tropical Precipitation Chemistry: La Selva, Costa Rica,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 31, No. 23, 1997, pp. 3903-3910.