ACS  Vol.3 No.2 , April 2013
The Formation of Lee Reversal Flow and Moisture Distribution Effect on the Characteristics of Precipitation
ABSTRACT

Moist flow over a bell-shaped mountain is investigated using the advanced regional prediction system (ARPS). Three closely related issues are addressed: the upslope precipitation mechanism, periodic evolution of precipitation associated with mountain waves, and lee precipitation induced by reversal flow. The results show that precipitation is strongly the moist distribution and terrain scale dependent. Beginning with the case of uniformly stratified flow over mountain, upslope precipitation and lee wave precipitation pattern are obtained. Most importantly, lee precipitation induced by reversal flow can be caused by layered flow over mountain, wherein lee reversal flow exerts a significant influence on the orographic precipitation.


Cite this paper
J. Liu and Z. Li, "The Formation of Lee Reversal Flow and Moisture Distribution Effect on the Characteristics of Precipitation," Atmospheric and Climate Sciences, Vol. 3 No. 2, 2013, pp. 218-223. doi: 10.4236/acs.2013.32023.
References
[1]   E. J. Becker, “Understanding the Characteristics of Daily Precipitation over the United States Using the North American Regional Reanalysis,” Journal of Climate, Vol. 22, No. 23, 2010, pp. 6268-6286. doi:10.1175/2009JCLI2838.1

[2]   C. A. Davis, “Environmental Controls on the Simulated Diurnal Cycle of Warm-Season Precipitation in the Continental United States,” Journal of Atmospheric Science, Vol. 67, No. 4, 2000, pp. 1066-1090.

[3]   P. K. Smolarkiewicz and R. Rotunno, “Low Froude Number Flow Past Three-Dimensional Obstacles. Part I: Baroclinically Generated Lee Vortices,” Journal of Atmospheric Science, Vol. 46, No. 8, 1989, pp. 1154-1164. doi:10.1175/1520-0469(1989)046<1154:LFNFPT>2.0.CO;2

[4]   R. B. Smith and I. Barstad, “The Linear Theory of Orographic Precipitation,” Journal of Atmospheric Science, Vol. 61, No. 14, 2004, pp. 1377-1391. doi:10.1175/1520-0469(2004)061<1377: ALTOOP>2.0.CO;2

[5]   Q. F. Jiang, “Moist Dynamics and Orographic Precipitation,” Tellus, Vol. 55A, 2003, pp. 301-316.

[6]   B. A. Colle, “Sensitivity of Orographic Precipitation to Changing Ambient Conditions and Terrain Geometries: An Idealized Modeling Perspective,” Journal of Atmospheric Science, Vol. 61, No. 5, 2004, pp. 588-606. doi:10.1175/1520-0469(2004)061<0588:SOOPTC>2.0.CO;2

[7]   A. B. Fraser, R. C. Easter and P. V. Hobbs, “A Theoretical Study of the Flow of Air and Fallout of Solid Precipitation over Mountains Terrain. Part 1: Airflow Model,” Journal of Atmospheric Science, Vol. 30, No. 5, 1973, pp. 801-812. doi:10.1175/1520-0469(1973)030<0801:ATSOTF>2.0.CO;2

[8]   A. Barcilon, J. C. Jusem and P. G. Drazin, “On the TwoDimensional Hydrostatic Flow of a Stream of Moist Air over a Mountain Ridge,” Geophysical & Astrophysical Fluid Dynamics, Vol. 13, No. 1, 1979, pp. 125-140. doi:10.1080/03091927908243765

[9]   R. B. Smith and Y. L. Lin, “The Addition of Heat to a Stratified Air Stream with Application to the Dynamics of Orographic Rain,” Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, Vol. 108, No. 456, 1982, pp. 353-379. doi:10.1002/qj.49710845605

[10]   D. R. Durran, “Mountain Waves and Down-Slope Flows. Atmospheric Processes over Complex Terrain Metero Monographs,” American Meteorological Society, No. 23, 1990, pp. 59-81.

[11]   R. B. Smith, “The Influence of Mountains on the Atmosphere,” Advances in Geophysics, Vol. 29, 1979, pp. 87-230.

[12]   R. B. Smith, “Stratified Flow over Topography, Environment Stratified Flows,” Academic Press, Waltham, 2002.

[13]   H. R. Gerard, “Orographic Precipitation,” Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Vol. 33, 2005, pp. 645-671. doi:10.1146/annurev.earth.33.092203.122541

[14]   R. B. Smith, “Orographic Precipitation in the Tropics: The Dominica Experiment,” American Meteorological Society, Vol. 93, No. 10, 2012, pp. 1567-1579. doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00194.1

[15]   W. K. Tao and J. Simpson, “Goddard Cumulus Ensemble Model. Part I: Model description,” Terrestrial Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Vol. 4, 1993, pp. 35-72.

[16]   E. Kessler, “On the Distribution and Continuity of Water Substance in Atmospheric Circulations,” Meteorological Monographs, No. 32, 1969, p. 84.

[17]   Y. L. Lin, R. D. Farley and H. D. Orville, “Bulk Parameterization of the Snow Field in a Cloud Model,” Journal of Climate and Applied Meteorology, Vol. 22, 1983, pp. 1065-1092. doi:10.1175/1520-0450(1983)022<1065:BPOTSF>2.0.CO;2

[18]   R. S. Scorer, “Theory of Waves in the Lee of Mountains,” Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, Vol. 82, No. 351, 1949, pp. 75-81. doi:10.1002/qj.49708235107

 
 
Top