JEP  Vol.4 No.4 , April 2013
Size-Resolved Water-Soluble Ionic Composition of Ambient Particles in an Urban Area in Southern Poland
ABSTRACT

The ambient concentrations of PM-related anions (Cl-, NO3-, SO42-) and cations (Na+, NH4+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+), total and contained in the PM fractions, were investigated in a typical urban area within the Silesian Agglomeration. A DEKATI low pressure impactor (DLPI) was used to sample PM and separate it into 13 fractions. The PM concentrations were determined gravimetrically, the ion content of the PM water extractsby means of ion chromatography (Herisau Metrohm AG ion chromatograph). In general, sulfate, nitrate, and ammonia had the greatest ambient concentrations. PM1 contained over 60% of the PM-related sulfate and nitrate mass and 90% of the ammonia mass. Also the majority of Na+ and Cl- were bound onto fine particles. Instead, more of the PM-related K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ mass were in PM2.5-10 than in PM2.5. In the fine particles (sub-fractions of PM1.6) sulfate, nitrate and ammonia occur mainly as (NH4)2SO4 and NH4NO3. In the sub-fractions of PM1.6-10 sulfate and nitrate might also occur as K2SO4, CaSO4, Ca(NO3)2 or NaNO3.



Cite this paper
W. Rogula-Kozłowska, I. Sówka, B. Mathews, K. Klejnowski, A. Zwoździak and K. Kwiecińska, "Size-Resolved Water-Soluble Ionic Composition of Ambient Particles in an Urban Area in Southern Poland," Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 4 No. 4, 2013, pp. 371-379. doi: 10.4236/jep.2013.44044.
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