New methods of analysis for water quality monitoring to detect inorganic substances are requiredto meet the demands of determining concentration, particularly at low detection limits, analysing speciation and even identifying the pollution source. Such information is essential to inform public health decisions and to comply with more stringent legislation. This paper concentrates on two case studies, reviewing the development in monitoring methods, and predicting future trends. Arsenic and nitrates detection was selected as these pollutants are particularly problematic from a human health perspective. Additionally, the challenges faced in developing monitoring methods for these chemicals are relevant to a wide range of other inorganics. The current state of the art in detection approaches for these chemicals are discussed along with recommendations for future research to further improve the methods.
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