OJPM  Vol.3 No.2 , April 2013
Adapting the Stage of Change model to investigate adolescent behavior related to reducing second hand smoke exposure
ABSTRACT

Aims: Second hand smoke (SHS) exposure is increasingly recognized as a major public health concern. Assessing adolescents’ motivational level to avoid SHS is vital to promote and reinforce reductions in SHS exposure. Methods: A brief measure based on the Stage of Change model was developed to characterize adolescents’ behavior related to reducing SHS exposure and used to identify potential determinants of SHS stage of change. The sample consisted of 1172 adolescents aged 13 to 15 years who participated in an internet-based cohort study of youth in British Columbia, Canada. Results: Sixty-six percent of the adolescents reported they had consistently made efforts to reduce exposure to SHS for more than 6 months, while 19% did not intend to reduce their exposure to SHS in the next 6 months. Adolescents’ SHS stage of change significantly differed by ethnicity, whether they had tried cigarettes, amount of tobacco smoked in their lifetime, parental and peer smoking statuses, past months’ exposure to SHS, frequent smoking in the home, and home smoking restrictions (all p < 0.05). Active smoking and more frequent exposure to SHS were associated with an increased probability of being in the pre-contemplation stage of change with regard to behavior related to reducing SHS exposure. Conclusion: This brief measure based

on the Stage of Change model can be used in future studies to characterize adolescents’ behavior around SHS. Adolescents who smoke or have parents and/or friends who smoke appear to be a population that could benefit from stage-matched interventions designed to raise awareness of the risks associated with SHS for smokers and non-smokers, and ultimately reduce SHS exposure.


Cite this paper
Richardson, C. , Schwartz, J. , Struik, L. and Bottorff, J. (2013) Adapting the Stage of Change model to investigate adolescent behavior related to reducing second hand smoke exposure. Open Journal of Preventive Medicine, 3, 160-164. doi: 10.4236/ojpm.2013.32021.
References
[1]   Canadian Partnership against Cancer (2012) Second-hand smoke and cancer. http://www.cancerview.ca/idc/groups/public/documents/webcontent/crc_snapshot_9.pdf

[2]   Johnson, K.C., Miller, A.B., Collishaw, N.E., Palmer, J.R., Hammond, S.K., Salmon, A.G., et al. (2009) Active smoking and second-hand smoke increase breast cancer risk: The report of the Canadian Expert Panel on Tobacco Smoke and Breast Cancer Risk. Tobacco Control, 20, e2. doi:10.1136/tc.2010.035931

[3]   Oberg, M., Jaakkola, M.S., Woodward, A., Peruga, A. and Prüss-Ustün, A. (2011) Worldwide burden of disease from exposure to second-hand smoke: A retrospective analysis of data from 192 countries. The Lancet, 377, 139-146. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)61388-8

[4]   Stocks, J. and Dezateux, C. (2003) The effect of parental smoking on lung function and development during infancy. Respirology, 8, 266-285. doi:10.1046/j.1440-1843.2003.00478.x

[5]   Jones, L.L., Hassanien, A., Cook, D.G., Britton, J. and Leonardi-Bee, J. (2012) Parental smoking and the risk of middle ear disease in children: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 166, 18-27. doi:10.1001/archpediatrics.2011.158

[6]   Geerts, C.C., Bots, M.L., Van der Ent, C.K., Grobbee, D.E. and Uiterwaal, C.S.P.M. (2012) Parental smoking and vascular damage in their 5-year-old children. Pediatrics, 129, 45-54. doi:10.1542/peds.2011-0249

[7]   Yolton, K., Xu, Y., Khoury, J., Succop, P., Lanphear, B., Beebe, D.W., et al. (2010) Associations between secondhand smoke exposure and sleep patterns in children. Pediatrics, 125, e261-e268. doi:10.1542/peds.2009-0690

[8]   Twardella, D., Bolte, G., Fromme, H., Wildner, M. and Von Kries, R. (2010) Exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke and child behaviour—Results from a cross-sectional study among preschool children in Bavaria. Acta Paediatrica, 99, 106-111.

[9]   Milne, E., Greenop, K.R., Scott, R.J., Bailey, H.D., Attia, J., Dalla-Pozza, L., et al. (2012) Parental prenatal smoking and risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. American Journal of Epidemiology, 175, 43-53. doi:10.1093/aje/kwr275

[10]   Prochaska, J., Velicer, W., Rossi, J., Goldstein, M., Marcus, B., Rakowski, W., et al. (1994) Stages of change and decisional balance for 12 problem behaviors. Health Psychology, 13, 39-46. doi:10.1037/0278-6133.13.1.39

[11]   Dino, G., Kamal, K., Horn, K., Kalsekar, I. and Fernandes, A. (2004) Stage of change and smoking cessation outcomes among adolescents. Addictive Behaviors, 29, 935940. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2004.01.004

[12]   Evers, K.E., Paiva, A.L., Johnson, J.L., Cummins, C.O., Prochaska, J.O., Prochaska, J.M., et al. (2012) Results of a transtheoretical model-based alcohol, tobacco and other drug intervention in middle schools. Addictive Behaviors, 37, 1009-1018. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2012.04.008

[13]   Pallonen, U.E., Velicer, W.F., Prochaska, J.O., Rossi, J.S., Bellis, J.M., Tsoh, J.Y., et al. (1998) Computer-based smoking cessation interventions in adolescents: Description, feasibility, and six-month follow-up findings. Substance Use & Misuse, 33, 935-965. doi:10.3109/10826089809056250

[14]   Callaghan, R.C., Hathaway, A., Cunningham, J.A., Vettese, L.C., Wyatt, S. and Taylor, L. (2005) Does stage-ofchange predict dropout in a culturally diverse sample of adolescents admitted to inpatient substance-abuse treatment? A test of the transtheoretical model. Addictive Behaviors, 30, 1834-1847. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2005.07.015

[15]   Adams, M.A., Norman, G.J., Hovell, M.F., Sallis, J.F. and Patrick, K. (2009) Reconceptualizing decisional balance in an adolescent sun protection intervention: Mediating effects and theoretical interpretations. Health Psychology, 28, 217-225. doi:10.1037/a0012989

[16]   Di Noia, J., Schinke, S.P., Prochaska, J.O. and Contento, I.R. (2006) Application of the transtheoretical model to fruit and vegetable consumption among economically disadvantaged African-American adolescents: Preliminary findings. American Journal of Health Promotion, 20, 342-348. doi:10.4278/0890-1171-20.5.342

[17]   Berg-Smith, S.M., Stevens, V.J., Brown, K.M., Van Horn, L., Gernhofer, N., Peters, E., et al. (1999) A brief motivational intervention to improve dietary adherence in adolescents. Health Education Research, 14, 399-410. doi:10.1093/her/14.3.399

[18]   Grimley, D.M., Prochaska, J.O., Velicer, W.F. and Prochaska, G.E. (1995) Contraceptive and condom use adoption and maintenance: A stage paradigm approach. Health Education and Behavior, 22, 20-35. doi:10.1177/109019819502200104

[19]   Nigg, C.R. and Courneya, K.S. (1998) Transtheoretical model: Examining adolescent exercise behavior. Journal of Adolescent Health, 22, 214-224. doi:10.1016/S1054-139X(97)00141-9

[20]   Prokhorov, A.V., Kelder, S.H., Shegog, R., Conroy, J.L., Murray, N., Peters, R., et al. (2010) Project ASPIRE: An interactive, multimedia smoking prevention and cessation curriculum for culturally diverse high school students. Substance Use & Misuse, 45, 983-1006. doi:10.3109/10826080903038050

[21]   Cornacchione, J. and Smith, S.W. (2012) The effects of message framing within the stages of change on smoking cessation intentions and behaviors. Health Communication, 27, 612-622. doi:10.1080/10410236.2011.619252

 
 
Top