In this paper, Finite Element method and full-scale experiments have been used to study a hot forging method for fabrication of a spindle using reduced initial stock size. The forging sequence is carried out in two stages. In the first stage, the hot rolled cylindrical billet is pre-formed and pierced in a closed die using a spherical nosed punch to within 20 mm of its base. This process of piercing or impact extrusion leads to high strains within the work piece but requires high press loads. In the second stage, the resulting cylinder is placed in a die with a flange chamber and upset forged to form a flange. The stock mass is optimized for complete die filling. Process parameters such as effective strain distribution, material flow and forging load in different stages of the process are analyzed. It is concluded from the simulations that minor modifications of piercing punch geometry to reduce contact between the punch and emerging vertical walls of the cylinder appreciably reduces the piercing load. In the flange chamber, a die surfaces angle of 52° instead of 45° is proposed to ensure effective material flow and exert sufficient tool pressure to achieve complete cavity filling. In order to achieve better compression, it is also proposed to shorten both the length of the inserted punch and the die “tongues” by a few mm.
 P. Hartley, I. Pillinger and C. Sturgess, “Numerical Modelling of Material Deformation Processes, Research, Development and Applications,” Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992. HUdoi:10.1007/978-1-4471-1745-2U
 C. McCornmack and J. Monagham, “2D and 3D Finite Element Analysis of a Three Stage Forming Sequence,” Journal of Material Processing Technology, Vol. 127, No. 1, 2002, pp. 48-56. HUdoi:10.1016/S0924-0136(02)00254-6U
 N. Biba, S. Stebounov and A. Lishiny, “Cost Effective Implementation of Forging Simulation,” Journal of Material Processing Technology, Vol. 113, No. 1-3, 2001, pp. 34-39. HUdoi:10.1016/S0924-0136(01)00616-1U
 Y.-S. Na, J.-T. Yeom, N.-K. Park and J.-Y. Lee, “Simulation of Microstructure for Alloy 718 Blade Forging Using 3D FEM Simulator,” Journal of Material Processing Technology, Vol. 141, No. 3, 2003, pp. 337-342. HUdoi:10.1016/S0924-0136(03)00285-1U