JEP  Vol.4 No.4 , April 2013
Assessment of Heavy Metals and Organics in Municipal Solid Waste Leachates from Landfills with Different Ages in Jordan

A comprehensive assessment of heavy metals and organic content was performed for leachates produced from a number of old and new landfills in Jordanover 9 month in efforts to set a framework for treatment regulations. All leachates were basic (pH = 7 - 9) and have high electric conductivity and high organic contents (COD = 3000 - 500,000 mg/L, TOC= 500 - 21,000 mg/L). The organic content was inversely proportional to the age of landfill. Heavy metals analysis showed no significant threat of Co, Zn, Pb and Al in any site. Meanwhile, the concentrations of Cr, Mn, Ni, Cd and As were high, exceeding local and international standard limits. Typical physical, chemical and biological treatments can be employed to upgrade the leachates of the active Ghabawi and Akaider sites. Whereas for the high organic strength of Russeifeh, an adsorption treatment by activated carbon is recommended.

Cite this paper: M. Abu-Daabes, H. Qdais and H. Alsyouri, "Assessment of Heavy Metals and Organics in Municipal Solid Waste Leachates from Landfills with Different Ages in Jordan," Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 4 No. 4, 2013, pp. 344-352. doi: 10.4236/jep.2013.44041.

[1]   D. Kumar and B. J. Alappat, “Analysis of Leachate Pollution Index and Formulation of Sub-Leachate Pollution Indices,” Waste Management and Research, Vol. 22, No. 3, 2005, pp. 230-239. doi:10.1177/0734242X05054875

[2]   P. Kjeldsen and M. Christophersen, “Composition of Leachate from Old Landfills in Denemark,” Waste Management and Research, Vol. 19, No. 3, 2001, pp. 249-256. doi:10.1177/0734242X0101900306

[3]   H. A. Qdais, “Selection of Landfill Leachate Management Strategy Using Decision Support System,” The Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management, Vol. 36, No. 4, 2010, pp. 246-257. doi:10.5276/JSWTM.2010.246

[4]   R. M. Borden and T. M. Yanoschak, “Ground and Surface Water Quality Impacts of North Carolina Sanitary Landfills,” Journal of the American Water Resources Association, Vol. 26, No. 2, 1990, pp. 269-277. doi:10.1111/j.1752-1688.1990.tb01370.x

[5]   H. Khattabi, L. Aleya and J. Mania, “Changes in the Quality of Landfill Leachates from Recent and Aged Municipal Solid Waste,” Waste Management and Research, Vol. 20, No. 4, 2002, pp. 357-364. doi:10.1177/0734247X0202000407

[6]   Z. Gotvajn, T. Tisler and J. Zagorc-Koncan, “Comparison of Different Treatment Strategies for Industrial Landfill Leachate,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 162, No. 2-3, 2009, pp. 1446-1456. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.06.037

[7]   A. J. Lee and G. F. Lee, “Groundwater Pollution by Municipal Landfills: Leachate Composition, Detection and Water Quality Significance,” Proceedings of the 4th, International Symposium, Margherita Di Pula, 11-15 October, 1993, pp. 1093-1103.

[8]   Y. H. Abu-Rukah and A. S. El-Aloosy, “Various Variables Migration in Landfill Site Using Statistical Explanation. A Case Study El-Akader Landfill Site, North Jordan,” Journal of Institute of Mathematics and Computer Sciences, Vol. 10, No. 2, 1997, pp. 113-130.

[9]   P. Kjeldsen, M. Barlaz, A. Rooker, A. Baun, A. Ledin and T. Christensen, “Present and Long Term Composition of MSW Landfill Leachate: A Review,” Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 32, No. 4, 2002, pp. 297-336. doi:10.1080/10643380290813462

[10]   S. Renou, J. G. Givaudan, S. Poulain, F. Dirassouyan and P. Moulin, “Landfill Leachate Treatment: Review and Opportunity,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 150, No. 3, 2008, pp. 468-493. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2007.09.077

[11]   L. Ziyang, Z. Youcai, Y. Tao, S. Yu, C. Huili, Z. Nanwen and H. Renhua, “Natural Attenuation and Characterization of Contaminants Composition in Landfill Leachate under Different Disposing Ages,” Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 407, No. 10, 2009, pp. 3385-3391. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.01.028

[12]   V. Gounaris, P. R. Anderson and T. M. Holsen, “Characteristics and Environmental Significance of Colloids in Landfill Leachate,” Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 27, No. 7, 1993, pp. 1381-1387. doi:10.1021/es00044a013

[13]   A. F. Al Yaqout and M. F. Hamoda, “Evaluation of Landfill Leachate in Arid Climate—A Case Study,” Environment International, Vol. 29, No. 5, 2003, pp. 593-600. doi:10.1016/S0160-4120(03)00018-7

[14]   D. Kulikowska and E. Klimiuk, “The Effect of Landfill Age on Leachate Composition,” Bioresource Technology, Vol. 99, No. 13, 2008, pp. 5981-5985. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2007.10.015

[15]   T. H. Christensen, P. Kjeldsen, P. L. Bjerg, D. L. Jensen, J. B. Christensen, A. Baun, H.-J. Albrechsten and G. Heron, “Biogeochemistry of Landfill Leachate Plumes,” Applied Geochemistry, Vol. 16, No. 7-8, 2001, pp. 659-718. doi:10.1016/S0883-2927(00)00082-2

[16]   Y. Abu-Rukah and O. Al-Kofahi, “The Assessment of the Effect of Landfill Leachate on Ground-Water Quality—A Case Study. El-Akader Landfill Site-North Jordan,” Journal of Arid Environments, Vol. 49, No. 3, 2001, pp. 615-630. doi:10.1006/jare.2001.0796

[17]   Z. Tadros, “Site Selection and Management of Solid Wastes Disposal Site. Case Study, Ghabawi Landfill/ Jordan,” Proceedings Sardinia 2007, Eleventh International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, Cagliari, 1-5 October 2007.

[18]   B. Mrayyan and M. Hamdi, “Management Approaches to Integrated Solid Waste in Industrialized Zones in Jordan: A Case of Zarqa City,” Waste Management, Vol. 26, No. 2, 2006, pp. 195-205. doi:10.1016/j.wasman.2005.06.008

[19]   BGR and WAJ “The North Jordan Resources Investigation Project. Amman Zarqa Basin Water Resources Study,” Water Authority of Jordan (WAJ), The Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources in Germany (BGR), Amman, 1989.

[20]   M. E. Stuart and B. A. Klinck, “A Catalogue of Leachate Quality for Selected Landfills from Newly Industrialised Countries,” British Geological Survey Technical Report WC/98/49, Keyworth, 1998.

[21]   N. Yusof, A. Haraguchi, M. A. Hassan, M. R. Othman, M. Wakisaka and Y. Shirai, “Measuring Organic Carbon, Nutrients and Heavy Metals in Rivers Receiving Leachate from Controlled and Uncontrolled Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Landfills,” Waste Management, Vol. 29, No. 10, 2009, pp. 2666-2680. doi:10.1016/j.wasman.2009.05.022

[22]   S. Aziz, H. Abdul Aziz, M. Yusoff, M. Bashir and M. Umar, “Leachate Characterization in Semi-Aerobic and Anaerobic Sanitary Landfills: A Comparative Study,” Journal of Environmental Management, Vol. 91, No. 12, 2010, pp. 2608-2614. doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2010.07.042

[23]   R. Stegmann, K.-U. Heyer and R. Cossu, “Leachate Treatment,” Proceedings Sardinia 2005, Tenth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, Cagliari, 3-7 October 2005.

[24]   H. J. Ehrig, “Water and Element Balances of Landfills,” In: Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences: The Landfill, 1989.

[25]   EPA Report, “Decision Maker’s Guide to Solid Waste Management,” Volume II, EPA 530-R-95-023, 1995.

[26]   K. Kylefors, “Landfill Leachate Management-Short and Long Term Perspectives,” Lulea University of Technology, Lulea, 1997, p. 16.

[27]   G. Tchobanoglous, H. Theisen and S. Vigil, “Integral Solid Waste Management Engineering Principles and Management Issues,” 1st Edition, Irwin/McGraw-Hill, New York, 1993.

[28]   G. J. Farquhar, “Leachate: Production and Characterization,” Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol. 16, No. 3, 1989, pp. 317-325. doi:10.1139/l89-057

[29]   T. Tolaymat, F. Kremer, D. Carson and W. Davis-Hoover, “Monitoring Approaches for Landfill Bioreactors,” National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, Cincinnati, 2004.

[30]   F. Pohland, W. Cross, J. Gloud and D. Reinhart, “Behavior and Assimilation of Organic and Inorganic Priority Pollutants Co-Disposed with Municipal Refuse,” Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, Cincinnati, 1993.

[31]   F. Pohland and S. Harper, “Retrospective Evaluation of the Effects of Selected Industrial Wastes on Municipal Solid Waste Stabilization in Simulated Landfills,” Hazardous Waste Engineering Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, Cincinnati, 1986.

[32]   I. M. Rafizul and M. Alamgir, “Characterization and Tropical Seasonal Variation of Leachate: Results from Landfill Lysimeter Studied,” Waste Management, Vol. 32, No. 11, 2012, pp. 2080-2095. doi:10.1016/j.wasman.2012.01.020

[33]   M. Batarseh, “The Quality of Potable Water Types in Jordan,” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Vol. 117, No. 1-3, 2006, pp. 235-244. doi:10.1007/s10661-006-0992-x

[34]   S. Xará, J. Delgado, M. Almeida and C. Costa, “Laboratory Study on the Leaching Potential of Spent Alkaline Batteries,” Waste Management, Vol. 29, No. 7, 2009, pp. 2121-2131. doi:10.1016/j.wasman.2009.03.010

[35]   S. Karnchanawong and P. Limpiteeprakan, “Evaluation of Heavy Metal Leaching from Spent Household Batteries Disposed in Municipal Solid Waste,” Waste Management, Vol. 29, No. 2, 2009, pp. 550-558. doi:10.1016/j.wasman.2008.03.018

[36]   C. Rydh and B. Svard, “Impact on Global Metal Flows Arising from the Use of Portable Rechargeable Batteries,” The Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 302, No. 1-3, 2003, pp. 167-184. doi:10.1016/S0048-9697(02)00293-0

[37]   T. Wagner, “Shared Responsibility for Managing Electronic Waste: A Case Study of Maine, USA,” Waste Management, Vol. 29, No. 12, 2009, pp. 3014-3021. doi:10.1016/j.wasman.2009.06.015

[38]   S. Macedo, R. de Jesus, K. Garcia, V. Hatje, A. Queiroz and S. Ferreira, “Determination of Total Arsenic and Arsenic (III) in Phosphate Fertilizers and Phosphate Rocks by HG-AAS after Multivariate Optimization Based on Box-Behnken Design,” Talanta, Vol. 80, No. 2, 2009, pp. 974-979. doi:10.1016/j.talanta.2009.08.025

[39]   N. Mirlean and A. Roisenberg, “The Effect of Emissions of Fertilizer Production on the Environment Contamination by Cadmium and Arsenic in Southern Brazil,” Environmental Pollution, Vol. 143, No. 2, 2006, pp. 335-340. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2005.11.022

[40]   M. Ponthieu, P. Pinel-Raffaitin, I. Le Hecho, L. Mazeas, D. Amouroux, O. Donard and M. Potin-Gautier, “Speciation Analysis of Arsenic in Landfill Leachate,” Water Research, Vol. 41, No. 14, 2007, pp. 3177-3185. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2007.04.026

[41]   ANONYMUS, “Anhang 51: Oberirdische Ablagerung von Abfallen. Allgemeine Rahmen-Verwaltungsvorschrift über Mindestanforderungen an das Einleiten von Abwasser in Gewasser,” German Regulation, 1996.