AMPC  Vol.3 No.1 A , April 2013
Optimizing the Conditions for Residual Stress Measurement Using a Two-Dimensional XRD Method with Specimen Oscillation
Abstract: In order to optimize the conditions for residual stress measurement using a two-dimensional X-ray diffraction (2D-XRD) in terms of both efficiency and accuracy. The measurements have been conducted on three stainless steel specimens in this study. The three specimens were processed by annealing, a cavitating jet in air and a disc grinder, with each method introducing different residual stresses at the surface. The specimens were oscillated in the ω-direction, representing a right-hand rotation of the specimen about the incident X-ray beam. The range of the oscillation, Δω, was varied and optimum Δω was determined. Moreover, combinations of the tilt angle between the specimen surface normal and the diffraction vector, ψ, with the rotation angle about its surface normal, f, have been studied with a view to find the most optimum condition. The results show that the use of ω oscillations is an effective method for improving analysis accuracy, especially for large grain metals. The standard error rapidly decreased with increasing range of the ω oscillation, especially for the annealed specimen which generated strong diffraction spots due to its large grain size.
Cite this paper: O. Takakuwa and H. Soyama, "Optimizing the Conditions for Residual Stress Measurement Using a Two-Dimensional XRD Method with Specimen Oscillation," Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry, Vol. 3 No. 1, 2013, pp. 8-18. doi: 10.4236/ampc.2013.31A002.

[1]   Y. Sano, K. Akita, K. Masaki, Y. Ochi, I. Altenberger and B. Scholtes, “Laser Peening without Coating as a Surface Enhancement Technology,” Journal of Laser Micro Nanoengineering, Vol. 1, No. 3, 2006, pp. 161-166. doi:10.2961/jlmn.2006.03.0002

[2]   H. Soyama and Y. Sekine, “Sustainable Surface Modification Using Cavitation Impact for Enhancing Fatigue Strength Demonstrated by a Power Circulating-Type Gear Tester,” International Journal of Sustainable Engineering, Vol. 3, No. 1, 2010, pp. 25-32. doi:10.1080/19397030903395174

[3]   A. Naito, O. Takakuwa and H. Soyama, “Development of Peening Technique Using Recirculating Shot Accelerated by Water Jet,” Materials Science and Technology, Vol. 28, No. 2, 2012, pp. 234-239. doi:10.1179/1743284711Y.0000000027

[4]   Y. Sano, M. Obata, T. Kubo, N. Mukai, M. Yoda, K. Masaki and Y. Ochi, “Retardation of Crack Initiation and Growth in Austenitic Stainless Steel by Laser Peening without Protective Coating,” Materials Science and Engineering A, Vol. 417, No. 1-2, 2006, pp. 334-340. doi:10.1016/j.msea.2005.11.017

[5]   O. Takakuwa, M. Nishikawa and H. Soyama, “Numerical Simulation of the Effects of Residual Stress on the Concentration of Hydrogen around a Crack Tip,” Surface & Coatings Technology, Vol. 206, No. 11-12, 2012, pp. 2892-2898. doi:10.1016/j.surfcoat.2011.12.018

[6]   O. Takakuwa and H. Soyama, “Suppression of Hydrogen- Assisted Fatigue Crack Growth in Austenitic Stainless Steel by Cavitation Peening,” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 37, No. 6, 2012, pp. 5268-5276. doi:10.1016/j.ijhydene.2011.12.035

[7]   O. Takakuwa and H. Soyama, “Using an Indentation Test to Evaluate the Effect of Cavitation Peening on the Invasion of the Surface of Austenitic Stainless Steel by Hydrogen,” Surface & Coatings Technology, Vol. 206, No. 18, 2012, pp. 3747-3750. doi:10.1016/j.surfcoat.2012.03.027

[8]   P. S. Prevey, “X-Ray Diffraction Residual Stress Techniques,” ASM Handbook, Vol. 10, 1986, pp. 380-392.

[9]   The Society of Materials Science, “Standard for X-Ray Stress Measurement (2002): Iron and Steel,” Japan.

[10]   H. Dölle, “The Influence of Multiaxial Stress States, Stress Gradients and Elastic Anisotropy on the Evaluation of Residual Stress by X-Rays,” Journal of Applied Crystallography, Vol. 12, 1979, pp. 489-501. doi:10.1107/S0021889879013169

[11]   H. Dölle and J. B. Cohen “Residual Stresses in Ground Steels,” Metallurgical Transactions A, Vol. 11, No. 1, 1980, pp. 159-164.

[12]   B. B. He, K. L. Smith, U. Preckwinkel and W. Schultz, “Micro-Area Residual Stress Measurement Using a Two- Dimensional Detector,” Materials Science Forum, Vol. 347-349, 2000, pp. 101-106. doi:10.4028/

[13]   B. B. He, U. Preckwinkel and K. Smith, “Advantage of Using 2D Detectors for Residual Stress Measurements,” Advances in X-Ray Analysis, Vol. 42, 2000, pp. 429-438.

[14]   B. B. He, “Introduction to Two-Dimensional X-Ray Diffraction,” Powder Diffraction, Vol. 18, No. 2, 2003, pp. 71-85. doi:10.1154/1.1577355

[15]   B. B. He, “Two-Dimensional X-Ray Diffraction,” John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New Jersey, 2009, pp. 249-328. doi:10.1002/9780470502648.ch9

[16]   H. Soyama, T. Kikuchi, M. Nishikawa and O. Takakuwa, “Introduction of Compressive Residual Stress into Stainless Steel by Employing a Cavitating Jet in Air,” Surface & Coatings Technology, Vol. 205, No. 10, 2011, pp. 3167-3174. doi:10.1016/j.surfcoat.2010.11.031

[17]   O. Takakuwa and H. Soyama, “The Effect of Scanning Pitch of Nozzle for a Cavitating Jet during Overlapping Peening Treatment,” Surface & Coatings Technology, Vol. 206, No. 23, 2012, pp. 4756-4762. doi:10.1016/j.surfcoat.2012.03.034

[18]   K. Yukino and R. Uno, “A Method of Evaluating the Dimensional and Orientation Distribution of Crystallites by X-Ray Powder Diffractometer,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 25, 1986, pp. 661-666. doi:10.1143/JJAP.25.661

[19]   T. Kurimura and T. Konishi, “The Optimization of the X- Ray Stress Measurement Condition on Austenitic Stainless Tubes for Electric Power Plants,” Materials Science Research International, Vol. 8, No. 4, 2002, pp. 175-180. doi:10.2472/jsms.51.12Appendix_175