JBNB  Vol.1 No.1 , October 2010
Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Hybrid Poly(methyl methacrylate)/Iron Nanowires for Potential Hyperthemia Therapy
Abstract: Externally applied magnetic fields have been used in this study to fabricate bamboo-like iron nanowires with or without a layer of Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). The hybrid PMMA/Fe nanowires were synthesized via hard X-ray synchrotron radiation polymerization with various treatment parameters. The results of XRD show that an oxide layer formed on the surface of the iron nanowires. The Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 phases coexist in the iron nanowires without X-ray irradiation. After X-ray irradiation, the Fe2O3 phase transformed into Fe3O4, which stabilized the iron nanowires. The results of XAS proved this phase transformation. TGA analysis confirmed the thermal properties and solid contents in these specimens. Their ferromagnetic behaviors were examined by magnetic hysteresis measurement, which indicated that the magnetic and structural properties of the nanowires can be manipulated by irradiation treatment. This may lead to a novel synthesis for iron nanowires that can be used in high thermal efficiency hyperthermia therapy.
Cite this paper: nullH. Liou, H. Lin, Y. Hwu, W. Chen, W. Liou, L. Lai, W. Lin and W. Chiou, "Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Hybrid Poly(methyl methacrylate)/Iron Nanowires for Potential Hyperthemia Therapy," Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology, Vol. 1 No. 1, 2010, pp. 50-60. doi: 10.4236/jbnb.2010.11007.

[1]   L. Menon, M. Zheng, H. Zeng, S. Bandyopadhyay and D. J. Sellmyer, “Size Dependence of the Magnetic Properties of Electrochemically Self-Assembled Fe Quantum Dots, Journal of Electronic Materials, Vol. 29, No. 5, pp. 510- 515.

[2]   S. Bandyopadhyay, L. Menon, N. Kouklin, H. Zeng and D. J. Sellmyer, “Electrochemically Self-Assembled Quantum Dot Arrays,” Journal of Electronic Materials, Vol. 28, No. 5, 2000, pp. 515-519.

[3]   M. Zheng, L. Menon, H. Zeng, Y. Liu, S. Bandyop?adhyay, R. D. Kirby and D. J. Sellmyer, “Magnetic Proper?ties of Ni Nanowires in Self-Assembled Arrays, Physical Review B, Vol. 62, No. 18, 2000, pp. 12282- 12286.

[4]   S. Pan, Z. An, J. Zhang, and G. Song, “Facile Synthesis of Prickly CoNi Microwires, Materials Letters, Vol. 64, No. 3, 2010, pp. 453-456.

[5]   P. Liu, Z. Li, B. Zhao, B. Yadian, B. and Y. Zhang, “Template–Free Synthesis of Nickel Nanowires by Magnetic Field,” Materials Letters, Vol. 63, No. 20, 2009, pp. 1650-1652.

[6]   H. Liou, W. Liou, H. Lin, Y. Hwu and W. Chen, “Characterization of Gold/PMMA Hybrid Nanomaterials Synthesized by Hard X-Ray Synchrotron Radiation,” Particuology, Vol. 8, No. 3, pp. 234-239.

[7]   H. M. Lin, C. K. Lin and Y. K. Hwu, “X-Ray Absorption Techniques in Examination the Structural Properties of Nanocrystalline Materials,” Fu Jen Studies, Science and Engineering, Vol. 38, 2004, pp. 1-26.

[8]   S. J. Roosendaal, A. M. Vredenberg and F. H. P. M. Habraken, “Oxidation of Iron: The Relation between Oxi- dation Kinetics and Oxide Electronic Structure,” Physical Review Letters, Vol. 84, No. 15, 2000, pp. 3366-3369.

[9]   S. Couet, T. H. Diederich, K. Schlage and R. R?hlsberger, “A Compact UHV Deposition System for in situ Study of Ultrathin Films via Hard X-Ray Scattering and Spec- troscopy,” Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 79, No. 9, 2008, pp. 093908-1-093908-9.

[10]   G. Giuli, G. Pratesi, C. Ciprianiand and E. Paris, “Iron Local Structure in Tektites and Impact Glasses by Ex- tended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure and High- Resolution X-Ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure Spec- troscopy,” Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 66, No. 24, 2002, pp. 4347-4353.

[11]   R. G. Shulman, Y. Yafet, P. Eisenberger and W. E. Blumberg, “Observation and Interpretation of X-Ray Ab- sorption Edges in Iron Compounds and Proteins,” Pro- ceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 73, No. 5, 1976, pp. 1384-1388.

[12]   C. R. Randall, L. Shu, Y. M. Chiou, K. S. Hagen, M. Ito, N. Kitajima, R. J. Lachicotte, Y. Zang and L. Que, Jr., “X-Ray Absorption Pre-Edge Studies of High-Spin Iron (II) Complexes,” Inorganic Chemistry, Vol. 34, No. 5, 1995, pp. 1036-1039.

[13]   T. E. Westre, P. Kennepohl, J. G. DeWitt, B. Hedman, K. O. Hodgson and E. I. Solomon, “A Multiplet Analysis of Fe K-Edge 1s → 3d Pre-Edge Features of Iron Com- plexes,” Journal of The America Chemical Society, Vol. 119, No. 27, 1997, pp. 6297-6314.

[14]   S. Son, M. Taheri, E. Carpenter, V. G. Harris and M. E. McHenry, “Synthesis of Ferrite and Nickel Ferrite Nano- particles Using Radio-Frequency Thermal Plasma Torch,” Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 91, No. 10, 2002, pp. 7589-7591.

[15]   G. S. D. Beach, F. T. Parker, D. J. Smith, P. A. Crozier and A. E. Berkowitz, “New Magnetic Order in Buried Native Iron Oxide Layers,” Physical Review Letters, Vol. 91, No. 26, 2003, pp. 267201-1-267201-4.

[16]   T. H. Diederich, S. Couet and R. R?hlsberger, “Non?collinear Coupling of Iron Layers through Native Iron Oxide Spacers, Physical Review B, Vol. 76, No. 5, 2007, pp. 054401-1-054401-5.

[17]   K. S. Suslick, M. Fang and T. Hyeon, “Sonochemical Synthesis of Iron Colloids,” Journal of the America Che- mi?cal Society, Vol. 118, No. 47, 1996, pp. 11960-11961.

[18]   C. F. Kernizan, K. J. Klabunde, C. M. Sorensen and G. C. Hadjipanayis, “Magnetic Properties of Nanometer-Scale Iron Particles Generated By Iron Atom Clustering in Cold Pentane,” Chemistry of Materials, Vol. 2, No. 1, 1990, pp. 70-74.

[19]   W. J. M. Mulder, G. J. Strijkers, G. A. F. van Tilborg, A, W. Griffioen and K. Nicolay, “Lipid-Based Nanoparticles for Contrast-Enhanced MRI and Molecular Imaging,” NMR in Biomedicine, Vol. 19, No. 1, 2006, pp. 142-164.

[20]   E. V. Shtykova, X. Huang, N. Remmes, D. Baxter, B. Stein, B. Dragnea, D. I. Svergun and L. M. Bronstein, “Structure and Properties of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Encapsulated by Phospholipids with Poly(ethylene glycol) Tails,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, Vol. 111, No. 49, 2007, pp. 18078-18086.