Back
 OJAS  Vol.3 No.2 , April 2013
Presence of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Streptococcus suis, Pasteurella multocida, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Haemophilus parasuis and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in upper respiratory tract of swine in farms from Aguascalientes, Mexico
Abstract: Respiratory diseases are one of the most important health problems in pig herds. The porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) is the term used to describe pneumonic diseases caused by multiple infectious agents that provoke weight loss in animals or death. In the PRDC multiple pathogens (bacteria and/or viruses) work in combination to induce this respiratory disease. Within this complex, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Streptococcus suis, Pasteurella multocida, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Haemophilus parasuis and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae are the main bacterial pathogens involved in great economic losses to the swine industry. The aim of this work was to estimate the presence of A. pleuropneumoniae, S. suis, P. multocida, B. bronchiseptica, H. parasuis and M. hyopneumoniae in the upper respiratory tract of pigs in representative swine farms inAguascalientes,Mexico, using PCR technique. The study was performed in 14 swine farms. We obtained a total of 212 nasal swabs. Near 20% of samples were positive for A. pleuropneumoniae (located in the 79% of farms); 17% were positive for S. suis (in 86% of farms), of these, 3% were S. suis serovar 2; 30% were positive for H. parasuis (93% of farms); 23% of the samples to P. multocida (in 79% of farms); and 19% to M. hyopneumoniae (in 64% of farms). B. bronchiseptica was not detected in this study. The results obtained show that bacterial pathogens of PRDC were present in the upper respiratory tract of pigs in all farms studied; therefore, these pathogens are widely disseminated in pig farms of Aguascalientes, Mexico.
Cite this paper: Loera-Muro, A. , Avelar-González, F. , Loera-Muro, V. , Jacques, M. and Guerrero-Barrera, A. (2013) Presence of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Streptococcus suis, Pasteurella multocida, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Haemophilus parasuis and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in upper respiratory tract of swine in farms from Aguascalientes, Mexico. Open Journal of Animal Sciences, 3, 132-137. doi: 10.4236/ojas.2013.32020.
References

[1]   Brogden, K.A. and Guthmiller, J.M. (2002) Polymicrobial diseases. ASM Press, Washington DC.

[2]   Pósa, R., Donkó, T., Bogner, P., Kovács, M., Repa, I. and Magyar, T. (2011) Interaction of Bordetella bronchiseptica, Pasteurella multocida, and fumonisin B1 in the porcine respiratory tract as studied by computed tomography. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, 75, 176-182.

[3]   MacInnes, J., Gottschalk, M., Lone, A., Metcalf, D., Ojha, S., Rosendal, T., Watson, S. and Friendship, R. (2008) Prevalence of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Actinobacillus suis, Haemophilus parasuis, Pasteurella multocida, and Streptococcus suis in representative Ontario swine herds. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, 72, 242-248.

[4]   Hao, N., Nga, T. and Schultsza, C. (2011) Slaughterhouse pigs are a major reservoir of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 capable of causing human infection in Southern Vietnam. PLoS, 6, Article ID: e17943. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0017943

[5]   Kim, H., Lee, S., Moon, H., Kim, Y., Lee, S., Hur, M. and Yun, Y. (2011) Streptococcus suis causes septic arthritis and Bacteremia: Phenotypic characterization and molecular confirmation. The Korean Journal of Laboratory Medicine, 31, 115-117. doi:10.3343/kjlm.2011.31.2.115

[6]   Nga, T., Nghia, H. and Schultsza, C. (2011) Real-time PCR for detection of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 in cerebrospinal fluid of human patients with meningitis. Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease, 70, 461467. doi:10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2010.12.015

[7]   Buettner, F., Konze, S., Maas, A. and Gerlach, G. (2011) Proteomic and immunoproteomic characterization of a DIVA subunit vaccine against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Proteome Science, 9, 23. doi:10.1186/1477-5956-9-23

[8]   Tobias, T.J., Boum, A., Klinkenberg, D., Daemen, A.J., Stegeman, J.A., Wagenaar, J.A. and Duim, B. (2012) Detection of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in pigs by real time quantitative PCR for the apxIVA gene. The Veterinary Journal, 193, 557-560. doi:10.1016/j.tvjl.2012.02.004

[9]   Sadilkova, L., Nepereny, J., Vrzal, V., Sebo, P. and Osicka, R. (2012) Type IV fimbrial subunit protein ApfA contributes to protection against porcine pleuropneumonia. BMC Veterinary Research, 43, 2. doi:10.1186/1297-9716-43-2

[10]   Wertheim, H., Nghia, H., Taylor, W. and Schultsz, C. (2009) Streptococcus suis: An emerging human pathogen. Emerging Infections, 48, 617625.

[11]   Tang, X., Zhao, Z., Hu, J., Wu, B., Cai, X., He, Q. and Chen, H. (2009) Isolation, antimicrobial resistance, and virulence genes of Pasteurella multocida strains from swine in China. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 47, 951-958. doi:10.1128/JCM.02029-08

[12]   Hotchkiss, E., Hodgson, C., Lainson, A. and Zadoks, R. (2011) Multilocus sequence typing of a global collection of Pasteurella multocida isolates from cattle and other host species demonstrates niche association. BMC Microbiology, 11, 115. doi:10.1186/1471-2180-11-115

[13]   Kaut, C., Duncan, M., Kim, J., Maclaren, J., Cochran, K. and Julio, S. (2011) A novel sensor kinase is required for Bordetella bronchiseptica to colonize the lower respiratory tract. Infection and Immunity, 79, 3216-3228. doi:10.1128/IAI.00005-11

[14]   MacArthur, I., Jones, J., Goodlett, D., Ernst, R. and Preston, A. (2011) Role of pagL and lpxO in Bordetella bronchiseptica lipid a biosynthesis. Journal of Bacteriology, 193, 4726-4735. doi:10.1128/JB.01502-10

[15]   Mullins, M., Register, K., Bayles, D., Dyer, D., Kuehn, J. and Phillips, G. (2011) Genome sequence of Haemophilus parasuis strain 29755. Standards in Genomic Sciences, 5, 61-68. doi:10.4056/sigs.2245029

[16]   Zhang, N., Chu, Y., Gao, P., Zhao, P., He, Y. and Lu, Z. (2012) Immunological identification and characterization of extracellular serine protease-like protein encoded in a putative espP2 gene of Haemophilus parasuis. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, 74, 983-987. doi:10.1292/jvms.11-0260

[17]   Zhou, M., Zhang, Q., Zhao, J. and Jin, M. (2012) Haemophilus parasuis encodes two functional cytolethal distending toxins: CdtC contains an atypical cholesterol recognition/interaction region. PLoS One, 7, Article ID: e32580. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0032580

[18]   Liu, W., Feng, Z., Fang, L., Zhou, Z., Li, Q., Li, S., Luo, R., Wang, L., Chen, H., Shao, G. and Xiao, S. (2011) Complete genome sequence of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae strain 168. Journal of Bacteriology, 193, 1016-1017. doi:10.1128/JB.01305-10

[19]   Villarreal, I., Vranckx, K., Calus, D., Pasmans, F., Haesebrouck, F. and Maes, D. (2012) Effect of challenge of pigs previously immunized with inactivated vaccines containing homologous and heterologous Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae strains. BMC Veterinary Research, 8, 2. doi:10.1186/1746-6148-8-2

[20]   Vranckx, K., Maes, D., Marchioro, S., Villarreal, I., Chiers, K., Pasmans, F. and Haesebrouck, F. (2012) Vaccination reduces macrophage infiltration in bronchus-associated lymphoidtissue in pigs infected with a highly virulent Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae strain. BMC Veterinary Research, 8, 24. doi:10.1186/1746-6148-8-24

[21]   álvarez, M., Rodríguez, J., Ciprián, A., Rodríguez, L., Ayora, G. and Segura, J. (2004) Serological profile of porcine influenza virus, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, in farms of Yucatán, México. Veterinaria México, 35, 296-305.

[22]   Sambrook, J. and Rossell, D. (2001) Molecular cloning, a laboratory manual. 3rd Edition, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, New York.

[23]   Loera, V., Jacques, M., Tremblay, Y., Avelar-González, F., Loera, A., Ramírez-López, E., Medina-Figueroa, A., González-Reynaga, H. and Guerrero-Barrera, A. (2013) Detection of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in drinking water from pig farms. Microbiology, 159, 535-543. doi:10.1099/mic.0.057992-0

[24]   Schaller, A., Djordjevic, S.P., Eamens, G.J., Forbes, W.A., Kuhn, R., Kuhnert, P., Gottschalk, M., Nicolet, J. and Frey, J. (2001) Identification and detection of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae by PCR based on the gene apxIVA. Veterinary Microbiology, 79, 47-62. doi:10.1016/S0378-1135(00)00345-X

[25]   Marois, C., Bougeard, S., Gottschalk, M. and Kobisch, M. (2004) Multiplex PCR assay for detection of Streptococcus suis species and serotypes 2 and 1/2 in tonsils of live and dead pigs. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 42, 3169-3175. doi:10.1128/JCM.42.7.3169-3175.2004

[26]   Oliveira, S., Galina, L. and Pijoan, C. (2001) Development of a PCR test to diagnose Haemophilus parasuis infections. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 13, 495-501. doi:10.1177/104063870101300607

[27]   Kamp, E., Bokken, G., Vermeulen, T., Jong, M., Buys, H., Reek, F. and Smits, M. (1996) A specific and sensitive PCR assay suitable for large-scale detection of toxigenic Pasteurella multocida in nasal and tonsillar swabs specimens of pigs. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 8, 304-309. doi:10.1177/104063879600800305

[28]   Hozbor, D., Fouque, F. and Guiso, N. (1999) Detection of Bordetella bronchiseptica by the polymerase chain reaction. Research in Microbiology, 150, 333-341. doi:10.1016/S0923-2508(99)80059-X

[29]   Register, K. and DeJong, K. (2006) Analytical verification of a multiplex PCR for identification of Bordetella bronchiseptica and Pasteurella multocida from swine. Veterinary Microbiology, 117, 201-210. doi:10.1016/j.vetmic.2006.05.003

[30]   Cai, H., Dreumel, T., McEwen, B., Hornby, G., BellRogers, P., McRaild, P., Josephson, G. and Maxie, G. (2007) Application and field validation of a PCR assay for the detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae from swine lung tissue samples. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 19, 91-95. doi:10.1177/104063870701900115

[31]   INEGI (2012) www.inegi.org.mx

[32]   Negrete-Abascal, E., Tenorio, V., Serrano, J.J., García, C. and de la Garza, M. (1994) Secreted proteases from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serovar 1 degraded porcine gelatin, hemoglobin and immunoglobulin A. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, 58, 83-86.

[33]   Negrete-Abascal, E., Tenorio, V., Guerrero, A.L., García, R.M., Reyes, M. and de la Garza, M. (1998) Purification and characterization of a protease from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serovar 1, an antigen common to all the serovars. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, 62, 183-190.

[34]   Negrete-Abascal, E., Reyes, M., García, R., Vaca, S., Girón, J., García, O., Zenteno, E. and de la Garza, M. (2003) Flagella and motility in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Journal of Bacteriology, 185, 664-668. doi:10.1128/JB.185.2.664-668.2003

[35]   Enríquez-Verdugo, I., Guerrero, A.L., Serrano, J.J., Godínez, D., Rosales, J.L., Tenorio, V. and de la Garza, M. (2004) Adherence of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae to swine-lung collagen. Microbiology, 150, 2391-2400. doi:10.1099/mic.0.27053-0

[36]   García-González, O., García, R.M., de la Garza, M., Vaca-Pacheco, S., Paniagua, G.L., Mejía, R., et al. (2004) Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae metalloprotease: Cloning and in vivo expression. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 234, 81-86. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6968.2004.tb09516.x

[37]   Hamer-Barrera, R., Godínez, D., Enríquez, V., VacaPacheco, S., Martínez-Zúñiga, R., Talamás-Rohana, P., Suárez-Güemez, F. and de la Garza, M. (2004) Adherence of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 to swine buccal epithelial cells involves fibronectin. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, 68, 33-41.

[38]   Serrano, L., Tenorio-Gutiérrez, V., Suárez, F., ReyesCortés, R., Rodríguez-Mendiola, M., Arias-Castro, C., Godínez-Vargas, D. and de la Garza, M. (2008) Identification of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae biovars 1 and 2 in pigs using a PCR assay. Molecular and Cellular Probes, 22, 305-312. doi:10.1016/j.mcp.2008.09.001

[39]   Gutiérrez, L., Vargas, D., Ocampo, L., Sumano, H., Martínez, R. and Tapia, G. (2011) Plasma concentrations resulting from florfenicol preparations given to pigs in their drinking water. Journal of Animal Science, 89, 2926-2931. doi:10.2527/jas.2010-3576

[40]   Williams, J.J., Torres-León, M., Echeverria-Coello, P. and Matos-Medina, M. (2000) Aislamiento e identificación de Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae en pulmones de cerdos con pleuroneumonía crónica sacrificados en el rastro municipal de Mérida. Revista Biomédica, 11, 175-181.

 
 
Top