Bacterialstrains in an activated sludge aerobic
reactor from a coke wastewater were found to be able to utilize thiocyanate as carbon source when the
thiocyanate-containing wastewater was deprived of carbon source. This study
showed that three thiocyanate-oxidizing bacterial strains, Burkholderia sp., Chryseobacterium sp., and Ralstonia sp. were isolated from the activated sludge of a
coke wastewater treatment plant as evidenced by the fact that complete decomposition of thiocyanate was achieved
either by coculture or individual pure culture. The thiocyanate biodegradation by
the coculture occurred with an optimal pH range between 6.5 and 8.5 and an
optimal temperature range between 30°C and 40°C. The biodegradation kinetics of thiocyanate was well fitted with the Andrew-Haldane model, which demonstrated a distinct substrate
concentration-inhibited bacterial growth pattern. The effects of different
types of additional carbon, nitrogen or sulfur sources on thiocyanate
biodegradation were also investigated. Analysis of the end-products indicated
that thiocyanate degradation by these strains should proceed via two pathways.
Cite this paper
H. Huang, C. Feng, X. Pan, H. Wu, Y. Ren, C. Wu and C. Wei, "Thiocyanate Oxidation by Coculture from a Coke Wastewater Treatment Plant," Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology, Vol. 4 No. 2, 2013, pp. 37-46. doi: 10.4236/jbnb.2013.42A005.
 C. Wei, M. He and Y. Ren, “Pollution Characteristics of Coking Wastewater and Control Stragies: Biological Treatment Process and Technology,” Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae, Vol. 27, No. 7, 2007, pp. 1083-1093. (in Chinese)
 Y. S. Jeong and J. S. Chung, “Biodegradation of Thiocyanate in Biofilm Reactor Using Fluidized-Carriers,” Process Biochemistry, Vol. 41, No. 3, 2006, pp. 701-707.
 I. Vazquez, J. Rodriguez, E. Maranon, L. Castrillon and Y. Fernandez, “Study of the Aerobic Biodegradation of Coke Wastewater in a Two and Three-Step Activated Sludge Process,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 137, No. 3, 2006, pp. 1681-1688.
 C. Staib and P. Lant, “Thiocyanate Degradation during Activated Sludge Treatment of Coke-Ovens Wastewater,” Biochemical Engineering Journal, Vol. 34, No. 2, 2007, pp. 122-130. doi:10.1016/j.bej.2006.11.029
 J. Stratford, A. E. X. O Dias and C. J. Knowles, “The Utilization of Thiocyanate as a Nitrogen Source by a Heterotrophic Bacterium: The Degradative Pathway Involves Formation of Ammonia and Tetrathionate,” Microbiology, Vol. 140, No. 10, 1994, pp. 2657-2662.
 N. V. Grigor’eva, T. F. Kondrat’eva, E. N. Krasil’nikova and G. I. Karavaiko, “Mechanism of Cyanide and Thiocyanate Decomposition by an Association of Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas stutzeti Strains,” Microbiology, Vol. 75, No. 3, 2006, pp. 266-273.
 Y. M. Kim, D. Park, D. S. Lee and J. M. Park, “Inhibitory Effects of Toxic Compounds on Nitrification Process for Cokes Wastewater Treatment,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 152, No. 3, 2008, pp. 915-921.
 X. Pan, Y. Li, H. Huang, Y. Ren and C. Wei, “Biodegradation of Thiocyanate and Inhibitory Interaction with Phenol, Ammonia in Coking Wastewater,” CIESC Journal, Vol. 60, No. 12, 2009, pp. 3089-3096. (in Chinese)
 C. Lee, J. Kim, J. Chang and S. Hwang, “Isolation and Identification of Thiocyanate Utilizing Chemolithotrophs from Gold Mine Soils,” Biodegradation, Vol. 14, No. 3, 2003, pp. 183-188. doi:10.1023/A:1024256932414
 S. J. Kim and Y. Katayama, “Effect of Growth Conditions on Thiocyanate Degradation and Emission of Carbonyl Sulfide by Thiobacillus thioparus THI115,” Water Research, Vol. 34, No. 11, 2000, pp. 2887-2894.
 C. Boucabeille, A. Bories and P. Ollivier, “Degradation of Thiocyanate by a Bacterial Coculture,” Biotechnology Letters, Vol. 16, No. 4, 1994, pp. 425-430.
 C. A. Du Plessis, P. Barnard, R. M. Muhlbauer and K. Naldrett, “Empirical Model for the Autotrophic Biodegradation of Thiocyanate in an Activated Sludge Reactor,” Letters in Applied Microbiology, Vol. 32, No. 2, 2001, pp. 103-107. doi:10.1046/j.1472-765x.2001.00859.x
 D. Y. Sorokin, T. P. Tourova, A. M. Lysenko and J. G. Kuenen, “Microbial Thiocyanate Utilization under Highly Alkaline Conditions,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 67, No. 2, 2001, pp. 528-538.
 J. H. Ahn, J. Kim, J. Lim and S. H. Hwang, “Biokinetic Evaluation and Modeling of Continuous Thiocyanate Biodegradation by Klebsiella sp.,” Biotechnology Progress, Vol. 20, No. 4, 2004, pp. 1069-1075.
 A. U. Chaudhari and K. M. Kodam, “Biodegradation of Thiocyanate Using Co-Culture of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Ralstonia sp.,” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, Vol. 85, No. 4, 2010, pp. 1167-1174.
 K. D. Chapatwala, G. Babu, O. K. Vijaya, K. P. Kumar, and J. H. Wolfram, “Biodegradation of Cyanides, Cyanates and Thiocyanates to Ammonia and Carbon Dioxide by Immobilized Cells of Pseudomonas putida,” Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, Vol. 20, No. 1, 1998, pp. 28-33. doi:10.1038/sj.jim.2900469
 M. B. Stott, P. D. Franzmann, L. R. Zappia, H. R. Watling, L. P. Quan and B. J. Clark, et al., “Thiocyanate Removal from Saline CIP Process Water by a Rotating Biological Contactor, with Reuse of the Water for Bioleaching,” Hydrometallurgy, Vol. 62, No. 2, 2001, pp. 93-105.
 N. V. Grigor’eva, Y. V. Smirnova and L. E. Dulov, “Thiocyanate Decomposition under Aerobic and OxygenFree Conditions by the Aboriginal Bacterial Community Isolated from the Wastewater of a Metallurgical Works,” Microbiology, Vol. 78, No. 4, 2009, pp. 402-406.
 H. K. Kwon, S. H. Woo and J. M. Park, “Thiocyanate Degradation by Acremonium strictum and Inhibition by Secondary Toxicants,” Biotechnology Letters, Vol. 24, No. 16, 2002, pp. 1347-1351.
 Y. S. Jeong and J. S. Chung, “Simultaneous Removal of COD, Thiocyanate, Cyanide and Nitrogen from Coal Process Wastewater Using Fluidized Biofilm Process,” Process Biochemistry, Vol. 41, No. 5, 2006, pp. 11411147. doi:10.1016/j.procbio.2005.12.010
 Y. L. Paruchuri, N. Shivaraman and P. Kumaran, “Microbial Transformation of Thiocyanate,” Environmental Pollution, Vol. 68, No. 1-2, 1990, pp. 15-28.
 C. H. Hung and S. G. Pavlostathis, “Kinetics and Modeling of Autotrophic Thiocyanate Biodegradation,” Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Vol. 62, No. 1, 1999, pp. 1-11. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0290(19990105)62:1<1::AID-BIT1>3.0.CO;2-Q
 D. Y. Sorokin, T. P. Tourova, A. M. Lysenko, L. L. Mityushina and J. G. Kuenen, “Thioalkalivibrio thiocyanoxidans sp. nov. and Thioalkalivibrio paradoxus sp. nov., Novel Alkaliphilic, Obligately Auto-trophic, Sulfur-Oxidizing Bacteria Capable of Growth on Thiocyanate, from Soda Lakes,” International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, Vol. 52, 2002, pp. 657-664.
 D. Y. Sorokin, T. P. Tourova, A. N. Antipov, G. Muyzer and J. G. Kuenen, “Anaerobic Growth of the Haloalkaliphilic Denitrifying Sulfur-oxidizing Bacterium Thialkalivibrio thiocyanodenitrificans sp. nov. with Thiocyanate,” Microbiology, Vol. 150, No. 7, 2004, p. 2435.
 C. H. Hung and S. G. Pavlostathis, “Aerobic Biodegradation of Thiocyanate,” Water Research, Vol. 31, No. 11, 1997, pp. 2761-2770.
 T. D. Brock, M. T. Madigan, J. M. Martinko and J. Parker, “Biology of Microorgannism,” 7th Edition, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, 1994.