To understand the
health effects of the temporary housing after the September 1999 earthquake
in Taiwan, we conducted the object observation, environmental monitoring,
questionnaire survey, and disease analysis in both spring and autumn seasons to
rate the presence and magnitude of exposures of environmental hazards. In the
hot season more people identified poor ventilation, dampness, hot, odor, and
insecurity as sources of hazards. The health effects on the cervix and vagina,
liver, and respiratory disease assessed by clinic visits were corresponded to
the environmental exposures, and complaints. It was suggested that reducing the
risks to temporary housing residences by means of improving housing
ventilation and providing community security when the permanent housing was
not finished from the experience of Chi-Chi earthquake disaster in Taiwan.
Cite this paper
Liao, Y. (2013) Health problems in the temporary housing in Taiwan. Health, 5, 669-674. doi: 10.4236/health.2013.54088.
 Huang, B.S., Chen, K.C., Huang, W.G., Wang, J.H., Chang, D.M., Huang, R.D., Chiu, H.C. and Tsai, C.C. (2000) Characteristics of string ground motion across a thrust fault tip from the September 21, 1999, Chi-Chi, Chinese Taipei earthquake. Geophysical Research Letters, 27, 2729-2732. doi:10.1029/2000GL011396
 921 Earthquake Post-Disaster Recovery Commission (2000) Q & A for post-quake reconstruction (in Chinese). Executive Yuan of Republic of China Publisher, Taiwan.
 Jonson, C. (2007). Strategic planning for post-disaster temporary housing. Disasters, 31, 435-458.
 Bolin, R. and Stanford, L. (1998) The Northridge earthquake: Community-based approaches to unmet recovery needs. Disasters, 22, 21-38.
 Daley, W.R., Karpati, A. and Sheik, M. (2001) Needs assessment of the displaced population following the August 1999 earthquake in Turkey. Disasters, 25, 67-75.
 Wu, J.Y. and Lindell, W.K. (2004) Housing reconstruction after two major earthquake: The 1994 Northridge earthquake in the United States and the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan. Disasters, 28, 63-81.
 Pinera, J.F., Reed, R.A. and Njiru, C. (2005) Restoring sanitation services after an earthquake: Field experience in Bam, Iran. Disasters, 29, 222-236.
 Badri, S.A., Asgary, A., Eftekhari, A.R. and Levy, J. (2006) Post-disaster resettlement, development and change: A case study of the 1990 Manjil earthquake in Iran. Disasters, 30, 451-468.
 Jonson, C. (2007) Impacts of prefabricated temporary housing after disasters: 1999 earthquakes in Turkey. Habital International, 31, 36-52.
 Krieger, J. and Higgins, D.L. (2002) Housing and health: Time again for public health action. American Journal of Public Health, 92, 758-768. doi:10.2105/AJPH.92.5.758
 Seppanen, O.A. and Fisk, W.J. (2004) Summary of human responses to ventilation. Indoor Air, 14, 102-118.
 Parthasarathy, S., Maddalens, R.L., Russell, M.R. and Apte, M.G. (2011) Effect of temperature and humidity on formaldehyde emissions in temporary housing units. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 61, 689- 695. doi:10.3155/1047-32220.127.116.119
 Verhoeff, A.P., van Strien, R.T., van Wijnen, J.H. and Brunekreef, B. (1995) Damp housing and childhood respiratory symptoms: The role of sensitization to dust mites and molds. American Journal of Epidemiology, 141, 103- 110.
 Karim, Y.G., Ijaz, M.K., Sattar, S.A. and Johnson-Lussenburg, C.M. (1985) Effect of relative humidity on the airborne survival rhinovirus-14. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 31, 1058-1061. doi:10.1139/m85-199
 Oie, L., Nafstad, P., Botten, G., Magnus, P. and Jaakkola, J.K. (1999) Ventilation in homes and bronchial obstruction in young children. Epidemiology, 10, 294-299.
 Spinillo, A., Bernuzzi, A.M., Cevini, C., Gulminetti, R., Luzi, S. and De Santoio, A. (1997) The relationship of bacterial vaginosis, candida and trichomonas infection to symptomatic vaginitis in postmenopausal women attending a vaginitis clinic. Maturitas, 27, 253-260.
 Wargocki, P., Sundell, J., Bischof, W., Burndrett, G., Fanger, P.O., Gyntelberg, F., Hanssen, S.O., Harrison, P., Pickering, A., Seppanen, O. and Wouters, P. (2002) Ventilation and health in non-industrial indoor environment: Report from a European multidisciplinary scientific consensus meeting (EUROVEN). Indoor Air, 12, 113-128.
 Phillips, C.J., Pines, M.K., Latter, M., Muller, T., Petherick, J.C., Norman, S.T. and Gaughan, J.B. (2010) The physiological and behavioral responses of steers to gaseous ammonia in simulated long-distance transport by ship. Journal of Animal Science, 88, 3579-3589.
 Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2001) Heat- related deaths—Los Angeles county, California, 1999- 2000, and United States, 1979-1998. MMWR, 50, 623- 626.
 Hyndman, S.J. (1990) Housing dampness and health amongst British Bengalis in east London. Social Science & Medicine, 30, 131-141.
 Ozturk, C.E., Ozdemir, J., Yavuz, T., Kaya, D. and Behcet, M. (2006) Etiologic agents of cervicovaginitis in Turkish women. Saudi Medical Journal, 27, 1503-1507.
 Donders, G.G., Mertens, I., Bellen, G. and Peickmans, S. (2011) Self-elimination of risk factors for recurrent vaginal candidosis. Mycoses, 54, 39-45.
 Burg, M.A. (1994) Health problems of sheltered homeless women and their dependent children. Health & Social Work, 19, 125-131.
 Lutgendorf, S.K., Reimer, T.T., Harvey, J.H., Marks, G., Hong, S.Y., Hillis, S.L. and Lubaroff, D.M. (2001) Effects of housing relocation on immunocompetence and psychosocial functioning in older adults. Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 56, 97-105. doi:10.1093/gerona/56.2.M97
 Saito, K., Aoki, H., Fujiwara, N., Goto, M., Tomiyama, C. and Iwasa, Y. (2013) Association of urinary 8-OHdG with lifestyle and body composition in elderly natural disaster victims living in emergency temporary housing. Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine, 18, 72-77.
 Sampson, R.J., Raudenbush, S.W. and Earis, F. (1997) Neighborhoods and violent crime: A multilevel study of collective efficacy. Science, 277, 918-924.
 Fullilove, M.T., Heon, V., Jimenez, W., Parsons, C., Green, L.L. and Fullilove, R.E. (1998) Injury and anomie: Effects of violence on an inner-city community. American Journal of Public Health, 88, 924-927.
 Kako, M. and Ikeda, S. (2009) Volunteer experiences in community housing during the great Hanshin-Awaji earthquake, Japan. Nursing and Health Sciences, 11, 357-359.