Objective: Aim of the
study is to examine the relationships between early maladaptive schemas and
the character and temperament aspects of personality, which are known as two
approaches to the understanding of personality structure. Methods: We conducted
the study using the Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (YSQ-SF) and the
Cloninger’s Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) in 122 university students
from different schools. Results and Conclusion: Results demonstrated that there are high level of
positive as well as negative correlations between most of TCI items and some of
the sub-scales of the YSQ, including vulnerability, social isolation and defectiveness.
In consistent with the Halvorsen et al.’s findings, our study
demonstrated that harm avoidance had a positive relationship with several EMSs,
including emotional deprivation, deficiency, dependence, failure, subjugation
and selfsacrifice. More importantly, we obtained the results consistent with
theirs regarding the negative correlations between self-directedness and
almost all of EMSs, with the exception of the schema of subjugation. We concluded
that although some of the personality characteristics contained in the YSQ
and the TCI are appeared to be related to each other, we need more studies to
support the Young et al.’s suggestion that early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) are likely to reflect underlying
characterological factors of personality.
Cite this paper
Atalay, H. , Akbaş, N. , Zahmacıoğlu, O. , Kılıç, E. and Göktuna, Z. (2013) Are early maladaptive schemas, temperament and character dimensions correlated?. Open Journal of Psychiatry, 3, 206-213. doi: 10.4236/ojpsych.2013.32018.
 Beck, A.T., Brown, G., Dahlsgaard, K., Newman, C.F. and Beck, J.S. (2001) Dysfunctional beliefs discriminate personality disorders. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 39, 1213-1225. doi:10.1016/S0005-7967 (00)00099-1
 Young, J.E. and Brown, G. (2001) Young schema questionaire. In: Cognitive Therapy for Personality Disorders, Professional Resource Press, Sarasota.
 Young, J.E., Klosko, J.S. and Weishaar, M.E. (2003) Schema therapy: A practioner’s guide New York. Guilford Publications, New York.
 Cloninger, C.R., Svrakic, D.M. and Przybeck, T.R. (1993) A psychobiological model of temperament and character. Archives of General Psychiatry, 50, 975-990.
 Cloninger, C.R. (1994) Temperament and personality. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 4, 266-273.
 Cloninger, C.R., Bayon, C. and Svrakic, D.M. (1998) Measurement of temperament and character in mood disorders: A model of fundamental states as personality types. Journal of Affective Disorders, 51, 21-32.
 Matsudaira, T. and Kitamura, T. (2006) Personality traits as risk factors of depression and anxiety among Japanese students. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 62, 97-109.
 Cloninger, C.R. (2004) Feeling good: The science of well-being. Oxford University Press, New York.
 Ha, J.H., Kim, E.J., Abbey, S.E. and Kim, T.-S. (2007) Relationship between personality disorder symptoms and temperament in the young male general population of South Korea. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 61, 59-66. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1819.2007.01611.x
 Marteinsdottir, I., Tillfors, M., Furmark, T., Anderberg, U.M. and Ekselius, L. (2003) Personality dimensions measured by the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) in subjects with social phobia. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 57, 29-35. doi:10.1080/08039480310000239
 Paris, J. (2005) Neurobiological dimensional models of personality: A review of the models of Cloninger, Depue, and Siever. Journal of Personality Disorders, 19, 156-170. doi:10.1521/pedi.19.2. 156.62629
 Halvorsen, M., Wang, C.E., Richter, J., Myrland, I., Pedersen, S.K., Eisemann, M., et al. (2009) Early maladaptive schemas, temperament and character traits in clinically depressed and previously depressed subjects. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 16, 394-407.
 Lohr, L.B., Teglasi, H. and French, M. (2004) Schemas and temperament as risk factors for emotional disability. Personality and Individual Differences, 36, 1637-1654.
 Thimm, J.C. (2010) Personality and early maladaptive schemas: A five-factor model perspective. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 41, 373-380. doi:10.1016/j.jbtep. 2010.03.009
 Arkar, H., Sorias, O., Tunca, Z., safak, C., Alkin, T., Akdede, B., et al. (2005) Factorial structure, validity, and reliability of the Turkish temperament and character inventory. Turkish Journal of Psychiatry, 16, 190-204.
 Bayon, C., Hill, K., Svrakic, D.M., Przybeck, T.R. and Cloninger, C.R. (1996) Dimensional assessment of personality in an out-patient sample: relations of the systems of Millon and Cloninger. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 30, 341-352. doi:10.1016/0022-3956(96)00024-6
 celikel, F.C., Kose, S., Cumurcu, B.E., Erkorkmaz, U., Sayar, K., Borckardt, J., et al. (2009) Cloninger’s temperament and character dimensions of personality in patients with major depressive disorder. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 50, 556-561.
 Kim, S.J., Lee, J., Yune, S.K., Sung, Y.H., Bae, S.C., Chung, A., et al. (2006) The relationship between the biogenetic temperament and character and psychopathology in adolescents. Psychopathology, 39, 80-86.
 Kose, S., Sayar, K., Kalelioglu, U., Aydin, N., celikel, F.C., Gülec, H., et al. (2009) Normative data and factorial structure of the Turkish version of the Temperament and Character Inventory. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 50, 361-368. doi:10.1016/j.comppsych.2008.09.007
 MacDonald, D.A. and Holland, D. (2002) Examination of relations between the neo personality inventory-revised and the temperament and character inventory. Psychological Report, 91, 921-930.
 Mulder, R.T., Joyce, P.R., Sullivan, P.F., Bulik, C.M. and Carter, F.A. (1999) The relationship among three models of personality psychopathology: DSM-III-R personality disorder, TCI scores and DSQ defences. Psychological Medicine, 29, 943-951. doi:10.1017/S0033291799008533
 Rie, S.M. de la, Duijsens, D.C. and Cloninger, C.R. (1998) Temperament, character, and personality disorders. Journal of Personality Disorders, 12, 362-372.
 Trouillet, R. and Gana, K. (2008) Age differences in temperament, character and depressive mood: A crosssectional study. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 15, 266-275. doi:10.1002/cpp.580
 Hoffart, A., Sexton, H., Hedley, L.M., Wang, C.E., Holthe, H. and Haugum, J.A. (2005) The structure of maladaptive schemas: A confirmatory factor analysis and a psychometric evaluation of factor-derived scales. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 29, 627-644.
 Muris, P. (2006) Maladaptive schemas in non-clinical adolescents: Relations to perceived parental rearing behaviours, big personality factors and psychopathological symptoms. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 13, 405-413. doi:10.1002/cpp.506
 Petrocelli, J.V., Glaser, B.A., Calhoun, G.B. and Campbell, L.F. (2001) Early maladaptive schemas of personality disorder subtypes. Journal of Personality Disorders, 15, 546-559. doi:10.1521/pedi.15.6. 546.19189
 Schmidt, N.B., Joiner, T.E., Young, J.E. and Telch, M.J. (1995) The Schema-Questionnaire: Investigation of psychometric properties and the hierarchical structure of a measure of maladaptive schemas. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 19, 295-321. doi:10.1007/BF02230402
 Calvete, E., Estevez, A., Arroyabe, L.E. and Ruiz, P. (2005) The Schema Questionnaire-Short Form: Structure and relationship with automatic thoughts and symptoms of affective disorders. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 21, 90-99. doi:10.1027/1015-57220.127.116.11
 Stopa, L., Thorne, P., Waters, A. and Preston, J.J. (2001) Are the short and long forms of the Young Schema Questionnaire comparable and how well does each version predict psychopathology scores? Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 15, 253-272.
 Waller, G., Meyer, C. and Ohanian, V. (2001) Psychometric properties of the long and short versions of the Young Schema Questionnaire: Core beliefs among bulimic and comparison women. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 25, 137-147. doi:10.1023/A:1026487018110
 Welburn, K., Coristine, M., Dagg, P., Pontefract, A. and Jordan, S. (2002) The Schema Questionnaire-Short Form: Factor analysis and relationship between schemas and symptoms. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 26, 519-530. doi:10.1023/A:1016231902020
 Soygut, G., Karaosmanoglu, A. and Cakir, Z. (2009) Assessment of early maladaptive schemas: A psychometric study of the Turkish Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form-3. Turkish Journal of Psychiatry, 20, 75-84.
 Nordahl, H.M., Holthe, H. and Haugum, J.A. (2005) Early maladaptive schemas in patients with or without personality disorders: Does schema modification predict symptomatic relief? Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 12, 142-149. doi:10.1002/cpp.430