Jianxin Zhang, Lang Wu. An Improved Method for Image Edge Detection Based on GM(1,1) Model [C]. 2009 International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Computational Intelligence, 2009: 133-136.
 Sifeng Liu, Yaoguo Dang, Zhigeng Fang. Grey System Theory and Application, Beijing: Science Press[M], 2010 (in Chinese).
 Ziyin Gu. The Application on Population Prediction Based on Metabolism GM(1,1) Model, Statistics and Consultation, vol.4, pp.30-31, 2009. (in Chinese)
 A. Banks, J. Vincent, and C. Anyakoha, “A Review of Particle Swarm Optimization. Part I: Background and Development,” Natural Computing, vol.6, no.4, pp.467-484, 2007.
 A. Banks, J. Vincent, and C. Anyakoha, “Review of Particle Swarm Optimization. Part II: Hybridization, Combinatorial, Multicriteria and Constrained Optimization, and Indicative Applications,” Natural Computing, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 109-124, 2008.
 Deng Julong, Elements of Grey System Tbeory, Wuhan:Hua zhong University of Science&Technology Press, 2002.(in Chinese)