Health  Vol.5 No.3 A , March 2013
Case-finding for mental distress in primary health care: An evaluation of the performance of a five-item screening instrument

Background: There is an increased interest in developing better and more accurate methods to recognize and manage mental health problems in primary care settings. Abbreviated screening instruments for mental distress are useful tools for research and clinical practice. The present study seeks to investigate whether only a few questionnaire items from the Self-Reporting- Questionnaire-10 (SRQ-10) can be a robust method in the screening for Mental Distress in Primary Health care. Methods: We compared the screening accuracy of a short, five-item (SRQ-5) version of the SRQ-10 with that of the SRQ-20, General Health Questionnaire 12 (GHQ-12) using the DSM-IV axis as a gold standard and analyzed its performance in different diagnostic entities. We also assessed the correlation, sensitivity and specificity between the 4 instruments. All the instruments were administered to 400 primary health care attendees. Results: The estimated prevalence of mental distress was 13.6% in the study sample (Depression 11%, anxiety disorders 1.8%). The SRQ-5 was highly correlated to SRQ-10 (0.923, p < 0.001), SRQ-20 (0.764, p < 0.001) and only moderately correlated to GHQ-12 (0.417, p < 0.001). The SRQ-5 had high properties for identifying mental distress. The AUC for overall mental distress was 0.925 while that for depression and anxiety were 0.915 and 0.849 respectively. Conclusion: This validation showed that in moving from SRQ with 10 or 20 items to one with merely 5 items, we do not seem to lose the screening prowess of the instrument. The SRQ-5 represents a simplified and less time-consuming screening instrument with strong performance characteristics. We therefore recommend it for inclusion into existing patient assessment protocols, thus enhancing case finding at primary health care level.

Cite this paper: Chipimo, P. and Fylkesnes, K. (2013) Case-finding for mental distress in primary health care: An evaluation of the performance of a five-item screening instrument. Health, 5, 627-636. doi: 10.4236/health.2013.53A083.

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