Birth of preterm
infants is a stressful event for their parents, particularly for mothers. The
mothers of preterm infants often feel hard to relate their infants because
they have separated since their first days after delivery. Long term separation
and less attractive, less responsive appearance of preterm infants also make
it difficult to build mother-child relationships. In addition, the mothers of
preterm infants are likely to have mood disorders such as depression, anxiety, and
stress-related disorders. The mothers’ psychiatric illnesses affect the
psychosocial development of preterm
infants and are often regarded as a risk factor for child abuse and maltreatment
in later life. Child abuse and maltreatment are also prevalent among preterm infants
than the full term infants. Intervention from the early period of preterm
birth is an important issue for both preterm infants and their mothers. Medical
and co-medical professionals should pay attention to developmental outcome of
preterm as well as psychosocial conditions of their mothers for the improvement
of their mental health.
Cite this paper
Ishizaki, Y. , Nagahama, T. and Kaneko, K. (2013) Mental health of mothers and their premature infants for the prevention of child abuse and maltreatment. Health, 5, 612-616. doi: 10.4236/health.2013.53A081.
 Waugh, J., O’Callaghan, M.J., Tudehope, D.I., Mohay, H.A., Burns, Y.R., Gray, P.H. and Rogers, Y.M. (1996) Prevalence and aetiology of neurological impairment in extremely low birthweight infants. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 32, 120-124.
 Fawer, C.L., Besnier, S., Forcada, M., Buclin, T. and Calame, A. (1995) Influence of perinatal, developmental and environmental factors on cognitive abilities of preterm children without major impairments at 5 years. Early Human Development, 43, 151-164.
 Tough, S.C., Siever, J.E., Leewm, S., Johnston, D.W., Benzies, K. and Clark, D. (2008) Maternal mental health predicts risk of developmental problems at 3 years of age: Follow up of a community based trial. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 8, 16. doi:10.1186/1471-2393-8-16
 Hutton, J.L., Pharoah, P.O., Cooke, R.W. and Stevenson, R.C. (1997) Differential effects of preterm birth and small gestational age on cognitive and motor development. Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition, 76, F75-F81. doi:10.1136/fn.76.2.F75
 Grace, S.L., Evindar, A. and Stewart, D.E. (2003) The effect of postpartum depression on child cognitive development and behavior: a review and critical analysis of the literature. Archives of Women’s Mental Health, 6, 263- 274. doi:10.1007/s00737-003-0024-6
 Gutteling, B.M., de Weerth, C., Zandbelt, N., Mulder, E.J., Visser, G.H. and Buitelaar, J.K. (2006) Does maternal prenatal stress adversely affect the child’s learning and memory at age six? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 34, 789-798. doi:10.1007/s10802-006-9054-7
 Heneghan, A.M., Silver, E.J., Bauman, L.J., Westbrook, L.E. and Stein, R.E. (1998) Depressive symptoms in inner-city mothers of young children: Who is at risk? Pediatrics, 102, 1394-1400. doi:10.1542/peds.102.6.1394
 Sinclair, D. and Murray, L. (1998) Effects of postnatal depression on children's adjustment to school. Teacher’s reports. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 172, 58-63.
 Wrate, R.M., Rooney, A.C., Thomas, P.F. and Cox, J.L. (1985) Postnatal depression and child development. A three-year follow-up study. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 146, 622-627. doi:10.1192/bjp.146.6.622
 Caplan, H.L., Cogill, S.R., Alexandra, H., Robson, K.M., Katz, R. and Kumar, R. (1989) Maternal depression and the emotional development of the child. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 818-822.
 Tooten, A., Hoffenkamp, H.N., Hall, R.A., Winkel, F.W., Elions, M., Vingerhoets, A.J. and van Bakel, H.J. (2012) The effectiveness of video interaction guid-ance in parents of premature infants: A multicenter randomised controlled trial. BMC Pediatrics, 12, 76.
 Miles, M.S. and Holdtich-Davis, D. (1997) Parenting the prematurely born child: Pathways of influence. Seminars in Perinatology, 21, 254-266.
 Meyer, E.C., Coll, C.T.G., Seifer, R., Ramos, A., Kilis, E. and Oh, W. (1995) Psy-chological distress in mothers of preterm infants. Developmental and behavior Pediatrics, 16, 412-417.
 Preyde, M. and Ardal F. (2003) Effectiveness of a parent “buddy” program for mothers of very preterm infants in a neonatal intensive care unit. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 168, 969-973.
 Singer, L.T., Salvator, A., Guo, S., Collin, M., Lilien, L. and Baley, J. (1999) Maternal psychological distress and parenting stress after the birth of a very low-birth-weight infant. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 281, 799-805. doi:10.1001/jama.281.9.799
 Miles, M.S., Funk, S.G. and Kaspar, M.A. (1992) The stress response of mothers and fathers of preterm infants. Research in Nursing & Health, 15, 261-269.
 Bryan, E. (2003) The impact of multiple preterm births on the family. BJOG, 110, 24-28.
 Ishizaki, Y., Nagahama, T., Kitamura, N., Suzuki, S., Fujii, T., Otsuka, I., Iba, M., Sakurai, C., Enomoto, Y. and Kobayashi, Y. (2007) Effects of “preliminary holding” of extremely low birth weight infants on the mental health of their mothers. International Journal of Psychology Research, 1, 23-32.
 Nagahama, T. and Matsushima, K. (2004) A lon-gitudinal study of mood state of mothers of infants who were admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit. Journal of Child Health, 63, 640-646. (in Japanese)
 MacKey, M.C., Williams, C.A. and Tiller, C.M. (2000) Stress, pre-term labour and birth outcomes. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 32, 666-674.
 Vanderbilt, D., Bushley, T., Young, R. and Frank, D.A. (2009) Acute posttrau-matic stress symptoms among urban mothers with newborns in the neonatal intensive care unit: A preliminary study. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 30, 50-56.
 Eriksson, B.S. and Pehrsson, G. (2002) Evaluation of psychosocial support to parents with an infant born preterm. Journal of Child Health Care, 6, 19-33.
 Teti, D.M. and Gelfand, D.M. (1991) Behavioral competence among mothers of infants in the first year: The mediational role of maternal self-efficacy. Child Development, 62, 918-929. doi:10.2307/1131143
 Muller-Nix, C., Forcada-Guex, M., Pierrehumbert, B., Jaunin, L., Borghini, A. and Ansermet, F. (2004) Prematurity, maternal stress and mother-child interactions. Early Human Development, 79, 145-158.
 Siefert, K., Thompson, T., ten Bensel, R.W. and Hunt, C. (1983) Perinatal stress: A study of factors linked to the risk of parenting problems. Health & Social Work, 8, 107-121.
 Bugental, D.B. and Happaney, K. (2004) Predicting infant maltreatment in low-income families: the interactive effects of maternal attributions and child status at birth. Developmental Psychology, 40, 234-243.
 Mizik, M., Bocknek, E.L., Broderick, A., Richardson, P, Rosenblum, K.L., Thelen, K. and Seng, J.S. (2013) Motherinfant bonding impairment across the first 6 months postpartum: The primacy of psychopathology in women with childhood abuse and neglect histories. Archives of Women’s Mental Health, 16, 29-38.
 Strathearn, L., Gray, P.H., O’Callaghan, M.J. and Wood, D.O. (2001) Childhood neglect and cognitive development in extremely low birth infants: A prospective study. Pediatrics, 108, 142-151. doi:10.1542/peds.108.1.142
 Hunter, R.S., Kilstrom, N., Kraybill, E.N. and Loda, F. (1978) Antecedents of child abuse and neglect in premature infants: A prospective study in a newborn intensive care unit. Pediatrics, 61, 629-635.
 Goldberg, S., Perrotta, M., Minde, K. and Corter, C. (1986) Maternal behavior and attachment in low-birth-weight twins and singletons. Child Development, 57, 34-46.
 Bracht, M., Ardal, F., Bot, A. and Cheng, C.M. (1998) Initiation and maintenance of a hospital-based parent group for parents of premature infants: Key factors for success. Neonatal Network, 17, 33-37.
 Minde, K., Shosenberg, N., Marton, P., Thompson, J., Ripley, J. and Burns, S. (1980) Self-help groups in a premature nursery—A controlled evaluation. The Journal of Pediatrics, 96, 933-940.
 Landry, S.H., Smith, K.E., Miller-Loncar, C.L. and Swank, P.R. (1998) The relation of change in maternal interactive styles to the developing social competence of full-term and preterm children. Child Development, 69, 105-123.
 Smith, K.E., Landry, S.H., Swank, P.R., Baldwin, C.D., Denson, S.E. and Wildin, S. (1996) The relation of medical risk and maternal stimulation with preterm infants' development of cognitive, language and daily living skills. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 37, 855-864.
 Meijssen, D., Wolf, M.J., van Bakel, H., Koldewijn, K., Kok, J. and van Baar, A. (2011) Maternal attachment representations after very preterm birth and the effect of early intervention. Infant Behavior and Development, 34, 72-80. doi:10.1016/j.infbeh.2010.09.009
 Brett, J., Staniszewska, S., Newburn, M., Jones, N. and Taylor, L. (2011) A systematic mapping review of effective interventions for communicating with, supporting and providing information to parents of preterm infants. BMJ Open, 2, e000023.
 Whitelaw, A. and Sleath, K. (1985) Myth of the marsupial mother: Home care of very low birth weight babies in Bogota, Colombia. Lancet, 25, 1206-1208.
 Ghavane, S., Murki, S., Subramanian, S., Gaddam, P., Kandraju, H. and Thumalla, S. (2012) Kangaroo mother care in Kangaroo ward for improving the growth and breastfeeding outcomes when reaching term gestational age in very low birth weight infants. Acta Paediatrica, 101, e545-e549. doi:10.1111/apa.12023
 Field., T.M., Schanberg, S.M., Scafidi, F., Bauer, C.R., Vega-Lahr, N., Garcia, R., Nystrom, J. and Kuhn, C.M. (1986) Tactile/kinesthetic stimulation effects on preterm neonates. Pediatrics, 77, 654-658.
 Ruiz-Peláez, J.G., Charpak, N. and Cuervo, L.G. (2004) Kangaroo mother care, an example to follow from developing countries. British Medical Journal, 329, 1179-1181. doi:10.1136/bmj.329.7475.1179
 Ahn, H.Y., Lee, J. and Shin, H.J. (2010) Kangaroo care on premature infant growth and maternal attachment and post-partum depression in South Korea. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, 56, 342-344.
 Tessier, R., Charpak, N., Giron, M., Cristo, M., de Calume, Z.F. and Ruiz-Peláez, J.G. (2009) Kangaroo mother care, home environment and father involvement in the first year of life: A randomized controlled study. Acta Paediatrica, 98, 1444-1450.
 Johnson, A.N. (2007) The maternal experience of kangaroo holding. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, 36, 568-573.
 de Macedo, E.C., Cruvinel, F., Lukasova, K. and D’Antino, M.E. (2007) The mood variation in mothers of preterm infants in Kangaroo mother care and conventional incubator care. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, 53, 344- 346. doi:10.1093/tropej/fmm076
 Cong, X., Cusson, R.M., Hussain, N., Zhang, D. and Kelly, S.P. (2012) Kangaroo care and behavioral and physiologic pain responses in very-low-birth-weight twins: A case study. Pain Management Nursing, 13, 127-138.
 Cong, X., Cusson, R.M., Walsh, S., Hussain, N., Ludington-Hoe, S.M. and Zhang. D. (2012) Effects of skin-to-skin contact on autonomic pain responses in preterm infants. The Journal of Pain, 7, 636-645.
 Nimbalkar, S.M., Chaudhary, N.S., Gadhavi, K.V. and Phatak, A. (2013) Kanga-roo mother care in reducing pain in preterm neonates on heel prick. The Indian Journal of Pediatrics, 80, 6-10. doi:10.1007/s12098-012-0760-6
 Hernandez-Reif, M., Diego, M. and Field, T. (2007) Preterm infants show reduced stress behaviors and activity after 5 days of massage therapy. Infant Behavior and Development, 30, 557-561.
 Field, T.M. (1998) Massage therapy effects. American Psychologist, 53, 1270-1281.
 Dudek-Schriber, L. (2004) Parental stress in the neonatal intensive care unit and the influence of parent and infant characteristics. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 58, 509-520. doi:10.5014/ajot.58.5.509
 Ravn, I.H., Smith, L., Smeby, N.A., Kynoe, N.M., Sand- vik, L., Bunch, E.H. and Lindemann, R. (2012) Effects of early mother-infant intervention on out-comes in mothers and moderately and late preterm infants at age 1 year: A randomized controlled trial. Infant Behavior and Development, 35, 36-47. doi:10.1016/j.infbeh.2011.09.006
 Kitamura, N., Nagahama, T., Ishizaki, Y., Kinoshita, Y. and Kaneko, K. (2009) Effects of interview on mood status of pregnant women with high-risk delivery. Pediatrics International, 51, 498-501.