amount of fat is a component that complicates the clinical evaluation and
the differential diagnostic between benign and malign lesions in the breast
MRI examinations. To overcome this problem, an effective erasing of the fat
signal over the images acquisition process,
is essentials. This study aims to compare three fat suppression
techniques (STIR, SPIR, SPAIR) in the MR images of the breast and to evaluate
the best image quality regarding its clinical usefulness. To mimic breast
women, a breast phantom was constructed. First the exterior contour and, in
second time, its content which was selected based on 7 samples with different
components. Finally it was undergone to a MRI breast protocol with the three
different fat saturation techniques. The examinations were performed on a 1.5
T MRI system (Philips?). A group of 5 experts evaluated 9 sequences,
3 of each with fat suppression techniques, in which the frequency offset and TI
(Inversion Time) were the variables changed. This qualitative image analysis
was performed according 4 parameters (saturation uniformity, saturation
efficacy, detail of the anatomical structures and differentiation between the
fibroglandular and adipose tissue), using a five-point Likert scale. The statistics analysis showed that anyone of the fat suppression techniques
demonstrated significant differences compared to the others with (p > 0.05) and regarding each parameter independently. By Fleiss’ kappa coefficient there was a good agreement among observers P(e) = 0.68. When comparing STIR, SPIR and SPAIR techniques it was
confirmed that all of them have advantages in the study of the breast MRI.
For the studied parameters, the results through the Friedman Test showed that
there are similar advantages applying anyone of these techniques.
Cite this paper
Ribeiro, M. , Rumor, L. , Oliveira, M. , O’Neill, J. and Maurício, J. (2013) STIR, SPIR and SPAIR techniques in magnetic resonance of the breast: A comparative study. Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering
, 395-402. doi: 10.4236/jbise.2013.63A050
 Hendrick, E. (2008) Breast MRI: Fundamentals and technical aspects. Springer, New York, 1-145.
 Medved, M., et al. (2006) High spectral and spatial resolution MRI of breast lesions: Preliminary clinical experience. American Journal of Radiology, 186, 30-37.
 Genson, C., et al. (2007) Effects on breast MRI of artifacts caused by metallic tissue marker clips. American Journal of Radiology, 188, 372-376.
 Ribeiro, M., et al. (2010) Técnicas de supress?o de gordura: Estudo comparativo em ressonancia magnética mamária. Acta Radiológica Portuguesa, XXII, 21-22.
 Schapiro, R., et al. (1986) Magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of breast disease. American Journal of Radiology, 146, 119-125.
 Kopans, D. (1997) Magnetic resonance imaging. In: Ryan, J., Ed., Lippincott-Raven, 2nd Edition, Breast Imaging, New York, 617-634.
 American College of Radiology (2008) ACR practice guideline for the performance of contrast-enhanced MRI of the breast. Breast MRI, 25, 561-567.
 Mussurakis, S., Buckley, D., Drew, P., et al. (1997) Dynamic MR imaging of the breast combined with analysis of contrast agent kinetics in the differentiation of primary breast tumours. Clinical Radiology, 52, 516-526.
 Delfaut, E., et al. (1999) Fat suppression in MR imaging: Techniques and pitfalls. Radiographics, 19, 373-382.
 Tien, R. (1992) Fat-suppression MR imaging in neuro- radiology: Techniques and clinical application. American Journal of Radiology, 158, 369-379.
 Morrell, G.R. (2009) Rapid fat suppression in MRI of the breast with short binomial pulses. Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 24, 1172-1176.
 Riedl, E., et al. (2001) The role of STIR MRI sequence in the evaluation of the breast following conservative surgery and radiotherapy. Neoplasma, 48, 7-114.
 Lauenstein, T. (2008) Spectral adiabatic inversion recovery (SPAIR) MR imaging of the abdomen. Magnetom Flash, 2, 16-20.
 Kato, H., et al. (2005) Composition of MRI phantom equivalent to human tissues. The American Association of Physicists in Medicine, 32, 3199-3208.
 Boston, R., et al. (2005) Estimation of the content of fat and parenchyma in breast tissue using MRI T1 histo-grams and phantoms. Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 23, 591-599. doi:10.1016/j.mri.2005.02.006
 Madsen, E., et al. (2006) Anthropomorphic breast phantoms for qualification of investigators for ACRIN protocol 6666. Radiology, 239, 869-874.
 Greatrex, K., et al. (2005) Current role of magnetic resonance imaging in breast imaging: A primer for the primary care physician. The Journal of the American Board of Family Practice, 18, 478-490.
 Lee, N., et al. (1997) Fatty and fibroglandular tissue volumes in the breasts of women 20 - 83 years old: Comparison of X-ray mammography and computer-assisted MR imaging. American Journal of Radiology, 168, 501- 506.
 Pestana, M.H. and Gageiro, J. (2005) Anláise de dados para ciências sociais—A complementaridade do SPSS. Edi??es Sílabo, Lisboa.
 Niitsu, M., et al. (2003) Fat suppression strategies in enhanced MR imaging of the breast: Comparison of SPIR and water excitation sequences. Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 18, 310-314. doi:10.1002/jmri.10364
 Lin, C., et al. Quantitative evaluation of fat suppression techniques for breast MRI at 3.0T.
 Brown, G. (1996) Fat suppression techniques.
 Lee, Y., et al. (2011) STIR versus SPAIR in breast imaging: A case-based discussion. Clinical Woman’s Health.