Correlation of Structural Seismic Damage with Fundamental Period of RC Buildings

Affiliation(s)

Laboratory of RC, Department of Civil Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, Xanthi, Greece.

Laboratory of RC, Department of Civil Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, Xanthi, Greece.

ABSTRACT

The sufficient estimation of the natural period of vibration constitutes an essential step in earthquake design and assessment and its role in the development of seismic damage is investigated in the current research. The fundamental period is estimated for typical reinforced concrete building types, representative of the building stock of Southern Europe, according to existing relationships. The building typologies also represent groups of 180,945 existing damaged buildings of an observational database created after the Athens (7-9-1999) near field earthquake. The estimated fundamental periods are correlated to several degrees of the recorded damage. Important conclusions are drawn on the parameters (height, structural type, etc.) that influence the seismic response and the development of damage based on the wide database. After conducting a correlation analysis, noticeable is the difference between the seismic demand of the elastic spectrum of the first (1959), the contemporary (2003) Greek Seismic Code and the values of peak ground accelerations of several Athens earthquake records. Moreover, PGAs in most records are often between the lower and the upper bound of the estimated fundamental periods for RC buildings with regular infills (n-normal) and with ground levels without infill panels (p-pilotis) regardless the height. A disparity is noticed when the estimated fundamental period is based on EC8 provisions for the considered as “high” buildings in S. Europe regarding the referring earthquake. The majority of buildings that developed several degree, type and extent of damage are considered of “low” height with estimated fundamental periods close to the PGA values of Athens earthquake ground motions. However, the developed damage was the result of the combination of parameters based on geological, tectonic and morphological characteristics of the affected area. In addition, a damage scale for the measurable recording, beyond the qualitative characterization of seismic damage in Greek post-earthquake surveys, is presented wherein the performance levels are defined according to the physical description of the seismic damage and, as well, in terms of structural and economic damage index.

Cite this paper

A. Eleftheriadou and A. Karabinis, "Correlation of Structural Seismic Damage with Fundamental Period of RC Buildings,"*Open Journal of Civil Engineering*, Vol. 3 No. 1, 2013, pp. 45-67. doi: 10.4236/ojce.2013.31006.

A. Eleftheriadou and A. Karabinis, "Correlation of Structural Seismic Damage with Fundamental Period of RC Buildings,"

References

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[2] R. K. Goel and A. K. Chopra, “Period Formulas for Concrete Shear Wall Buildings,” Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 124, No. 4, 1998, pp. 426-433. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(1998)124:4(426)

[3] H. Crowley, “Periods of Vibration for DisplacementBased Assessment of RC Buildings,” MSc Dissertation, ROSE School, Pavia, 2003.

[4] H. Crowley and R. Pinho, “Period—Height Relationship for Existing European Reinforced Concrete Buildings,” Journal of Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 8, No. 1, 2004, pp. 93-119. doi:10.1080/13632460409350522

[5] A. K. Eleftheriadou, “Contribution to the Seismic Vulnerability Assessment of Reinforced Concrete Structures (in Greek),” Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, Xanthi, 2009.

[6] A. K. Eleftheriadou and A. I. Karabinis, “Seismic Vulnerability Assessment of Buildings Based on the Near Field Athens (7-9-1999) Earthquake Damage Data,” International Journal of Earthquakes and Structures, Vol. 3, No. 2, 2012, pp. 117-140.

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[8] H. Crowley and R. Pinho, “Revisiting Eurocode 8 Formulae for Periods of Vibration and Their Employment in Linear Seismic Analysis,” Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, Vol. 39, No. 2, 2010, pp. 223-235.

[9] M. J. N. Priestley, “Displacement-Based Seismic Assessment of Reinforced Concrete Buildings,” Journal of Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 1 No. 1, 1997, pp. 157-192. doi:10.1080/13632469708962365

[10] S. Glaister and R. Pinho, “Development of a Simplified Deformation-Based Method for Seismic Vulnerability Assessment,” Journal of Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 7, No. 1, 2003, pp. 107-140.

[11] G. M. Verderame, I. Iervolino and G. Manfredi, “Elastic Period of Sub-Standard Reinforced Concrete Moment Resisting Frame Buildings,” Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 8, No. 4, 2010, pp. 955-972. doi:10.1007/s10518-010-9176-8

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[24] Z. Schenková, V. Schenk, I. Kalogeras, R. Pichl, P. Kottnauer, C. Papatsimba and G. Panopoulou, “Isoseismal Maps Drawing by the Kriging Method,” Journal of Seismology, Vol. 11, No. 1, 2007, pp. 121-129. doi:10.1007/s10950-006-9023-1

[25] L. Hutchings, E. Ioannidou, W. Foxall, N. Voulgaris, J. Savy, I. Kalogeras, L. Scognamiglio and G. Stavrakakis, “A Physically Based Strong Ground-Motion Prediction Methodology; Application to PSHA and the 1999 Mw = 6.0 Athens Earthquake,” Geophysical Journal International, Vol. 168, No. 2, 2007, pp. 659-680. doi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.2006.03178.x

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[28] A. K. Eleftheriadou and A. I. Karabinis, “Seismic Vulnerability Assessment with Damage Probability Matrices,” Proceedings of the 3rd Greek Conference on Earthquake Engineering and Technical Seismology, Paper No. 2108, Athens, 2008.

[29] A. K. Eleftheriadou and A. I. Karabinis, “Seismic Damage Scales in Reinforced Concrete Structures,” Technika Chronika, Scientific Journal of the Technical Chamber of Greece, Vol. 3, No. 1, 2010, pp. 41-60.

[30] T. Rossetto and A. Elnashai, “Derivation of Vulnerability Functions for European-Type RC Structures Based on Observational Data,” Journal of Engineering Structures, Vol. 25, No. 10, 2003, pp. 1241-1263. doi:10.1016/S0141-0296(03)00060-9

[31] M. Rota, A. Penna and C. L. Strobbia, “Processing Italian Damage Data to Derive Typological Fragility Curves,” Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 28, No. 10-11, 2008, pp. 933-947.

[32] P. Sarabandi, D. Pachakis, S. King and A. Kiremidjian, “Development of Empirical Building Performance Functions Data from Past Earthquakes,” Proceedings of ICASP- 9, San Francisco, 6-9 July 2003, pp. 629-635.

[33] Applied Technology Council (ATC), “Earthquake Damage Evaluation Data for California,” ATC-13 Report, Redwood City, 1985.

[34] A. J. Kappos, K. Pitilakis, K. Morfidis and N. Hatzinikolaou, “Vulnerability and Risk Study of Volos (Greece) Metropolitan Area,” Proceedings of the 12th ECEE, London, Paper No.74, 9-13 September 2002.

[35] A. J. Kappos, “Seismic Vulnerability and Risk Assessment of Urban Habitat in Southern European Cities,” Proceedings of the Urban Habitat Constructions under Catastrophic Events Workshop (COST C26), Prague, 30-31 March 2007, pp. 115-129.

[36] S. Tesfamariam and M. Saatcioglu, “Risk-Based Seismic Evaluation of Reinforced Concrete Buildings,” Earthquake Spectra, Vol. 24, No. 3, 2008, pp. 795-821. doi:10.1193/1.2952767

[37] A. I. Karabinis and A. K. Eleftheriadou, “Vulnerability Assessment Derived from Earthquake Damage Data,” Proceedings of the ECCOMAS Thematic Conference on Computational Methods in Structural Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Rethymno, Paper No.12-64, 1316 June 2007.

[38] Earthquake Planning and Protection Organization (EPPO), “Guidelines and Forms for Immediate Post-Earthquake Screening of Reinforced Concrete Buildings (in Greek),” Athens, 1997.

[39] Ministry of Public Works, Earthquake Planning and Protection Organization, “Post-Earthquake Inspection of Reinforced Concrete Buildings (in Greek),” Athens, 1984.

[40] National Technical Chamber of Greece (NTCG), “Vulner ability Assessment of Buildings (in Greek),” Final Report, Technical Team No.I.2, National Programme for Earthquake Management of Existing Buildings, Earthquake Planning & Protection Organization, Athens, 2001.

[41] A. J. Kappos, K. C. Stylianidis and K. Pitilakis, “Development of Seismic Risk Scenarios Based on a Hybrid Method of Vulnerability Assessment,” Journal of Natural Hazards, Vol. 17, No. 2, 1998, pp. 177-192. doi:10.1023/A:1008083021022

[42] A. Ghobarah, “On Drift Limits Associated with Different Damage Levels,” Proceedings of International Workshop on Performance-Based Seismic Design, Department of Civil Engineering, McMaster University, Bled, 28 June-1 July 2004.

[43] R. Foltz, “Estimating Seismic Damage and Repair Costs,” MAE Center Project CM-4, The Citadel, Texas A&M, 2004, in press.

[44] E. Lekkas, “The Athens Earthquake (7 September 1999): Intensity Distribution and Controlling Factors,” Engineering Geology, Vol. 59, No. 3-4, 2001, pp. 297-311. doi:10.1016/S0013-7952(00)00119-8

[45] R. Roumelioti, A. Kiratzi and N. Theodulidis, “Stochastic Strong Ground—Motion Simulation of the 7 September 1999 Athens (Greece) Earthquake,” Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol. 94, No. 3, 2004, pp. 1036-1052.

[46] I. S. Kalogeras and G. N. Stavrakakis, “The Athens, Greece September 7th, 1999 Earthquake: Strong Motion Data Processing (7/9/1999-31/3/2000),” National Observatory of Athens, Geodynamic Institute, Athens, 2001.

[47] G. Gazetas and Collaborators, “Computational and Experimental Assessment of Strong Motion within the Meizoseismal Area of Parnitha, 7-9-99, Earthquake (in Greek),” Technical Report, Earthquake Planning and Protection Organization, Athens, 2001, pp. 1-207.

[1] R. K. Goel and A. K. Chopra, “Period Formulas for Moment—Resisting Frame Buildings,” Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 123, No. 11, 1997, pp. 1454-1461. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(1997)123:11(1454)

[2] R. K. Goel and A. K. Chopra, “Period Formulas for Concrete Shear Wall Buildings,” Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 124, No. 4, 1998, pp. 426-433. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(1998)124:4(426)

[3] H. Crowley, “Periods of Vibration for DisplacementBased Assessment of RC Buildings,” MSc Dissertation, ROSE School, Pavia, 2003.

[4] H. Crowley and R. Pinho, “Period—Height Relationship for Existing European Reinforced Concrete Buildings,” Journal of Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 8, No. 1, 2004, pp. 93-119. doi:10.1080/13632460409350522

[5] A. K. Eleftheriadou, “Contribution to the Seismic Vulnerability Assessment of Reinforced Concrete Structures (in Greek),” Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, Xanthi, 2009.

[6] A. K. Eleftheriadou and A. I. Karabinis, “Seismic Vulnerability Assessment of Buildings Based on the Near Field Athens (7-9-1999) Earthquake Damage Data,” International Journal of Earthquakes and Structures, Vol. 3, No. 2, 2012, pp. 117-140.

[7] A. K. Eleftheriadou and A. I. Karabinis, “Evaluation of Damage Probability Matrices from Observational Seismic Damage Data,” International Journal of Earthquakes and Structures, Vol. 4, No. 3, 2013, in press.

[8] H. Crowley and R. Pinho, “Revisiting Eurocode 8 Formulae for Periods of Vibration and Their Employment in Linear Seismic Analysis,” Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, Vol. 39, No. 2, 2010, pp. 223-235.

[9] M. J. N. Priestley, “Displacement-Based Seismic Assessment of Reinforced Concrete Buildings,” Journal of Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 1 No. 1, 1997, pp. 157-192. doi:10.1080/13632469708962365

[10] S. Glaister and R. Pinho, “Development of a Simplified Deformation-Based Method for Seismic Vulnerability Assessment,” Journal of Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 7, No. 1, 2003, pp. 107-140.

[11] G. M. Verderame, I. Iervolino and G. Manfredi, “Elastic Period of Sub-Standard Reinforced Concrete Moment Resisting Frame Buildings,” Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 8, No. 4, 2010, pp. 955-972. doi:10.1007/s10518-010-9176-8

[12] Applied Technology Council (ATC), “Tentative Provisions for the Development of Seismic Regulations for Buildings,” Report No. ATC3-06, Palo Alto, 1978.

[13] Structural Engineers Association of California, “Recommended Lateral Force Requirements,” SEAOC, San Francisco, 1988.

[14] H. Crowley and R. Pinho, “Revisiting Eurocode 8 Formulae for Periods of Vibration and Their Employment in Linear Seismic Analysis,” Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, Vol. 39, No. 2, 2010, pp. 223-235.

[15] D. Gilles and G. McClure, “Development of a Period Database for Buildings in Montreal Using Ambient Vibrations,” Proceedings of the 14th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Beijing, 12-17 October 2008, Paper No. 12-03-0016, 8 p.

[16] Applied Technology Council (ATC), “Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures,” ASCE/SEI 7-05, Structural Engineering Institute of the American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, 2006.

[17] CEN, “Eurocode 8: Design of Structures for Earthquake Resistance. Part 1: General Rules, Seismic Actions and Rules for Buildings,” European Standard EN 1998-1:2004, Comité Européen de Normalisation, Brussels, 2004.

[18] P. Ricci, G. M. Verderame and G. Manfredi, “Analytical Investigation of Elastic Period of Infilled RC MRF Buildings,” Engineering Structures, Vol. 33, No. 2, 2011, pp. 308-319. doi:10.1016/j.engstruct.2010.10.009

[19] Uniform Building Code (UBC-97), “Structural Engineering Design Provisions,” International Conference of Building Officials, Whittier, 1997, p. 492.

[20] SEAOC, “Recommended Lateral Force Requirements,” 6th Edition, Seismology Committee, Structural Engineers Association of California, Sacramento, 1996.

[21] A. I. Karabinis, “Contribution to the Research of Dynamic Characteristics for Reinforced Concrete Structures,” Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, Xanthi, 1986.

[22] Institute of Engineering Seismology and Earthquake Engineering (ITSAK)—Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTh), “Athens Earthquake: Assessment of Vulnerability in the Disaster Area and Correlation to the Real Distribution of Buildings Damage after the Earthquake,” Research Project, Earthquake Planning and Protection Organization (EPPO), Thessaloniki, 2004.

[23] A. K. Eleftheriadou and A. I. Karabinis, “Development of Damage Probability Matrices Based on Greek Earthquake Damage Data,” Journal of Earthquake Engineering & Engineering Vibration, Vol. 10, No. 1, 2011, pp. 129-141. doi:10.1007/s11803-011-0052-6

[24] Z. Schenková, V. Schenk, I. Kalogeras, R. Pichl, P. Kottnauer, C. Papatsimba and G. Panopoulou, “Isoseismal Maps Drawing by the Kriging Method,” Journal of Seismology, Vol. 11, No. 1, 2007, pp. 121-129. doi:10.1007/s10950-006-9023-1

[25] L. Hutchings, E. Ioannidou, W. Foxall, N. Voulgaris, J. Savy, I. Kalogeras, L. Scognamiglio and G. Stavrakakis, “A Physically Based Strong Ground-Motion Prediction Methodology; Application to PSHA and the 1999 Mw = 6.0 Athens Earthquake,” Geophysical Journal International, Vol. 168, No. 2, 2007, pp. 659-680. doi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.2006.03178.x

[26] National Technical Chamber of Greece (NTCG), “PreEarthquake Reinforcement of Existing Buildings (in Greek),” National Programme for Earthquake Management of Existing Buildings, Earthquake Planning & Protection Organization, Athens, 2006.

[27] A. K. Eleftheriadou and A. I. Karabinis, “Damage Probability Matrices Derived from Earthquake Statistical Data,” Proceedings of the 14th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Paper No. 07-0201, Beijing, 12-17 October 2008.

[28] A. K. Eleftheriadou and A. I. Karabinis, “Seismic Vulnerability Assessment with Damage Probability Matrices,” Proceedings of the 3rd Greek Conference on Earthquake Engineering and Technical Seismology, Paper No. 2108, Athens, 2008.

[29] A. K. Eleftheriadou and A. I. Karabinis, “Seismic Damage Scales in Reinforced Concrete Structures,” Technika Chronika, Scientific Journal of the Technical Chamber of Greece, Vol. 3, No. 1, 2010, pp. 41-60.

[30] T. Rossetto and A. Elnashai, “Derivation of Vulnerability Functions for European-Type RC Structures Based on Observational Data,” Journal of Engineering Structures, Vol. 25, No. 10, 2003, pp. 1241-1263. doi:10.1016/S0141-0296(03)00060-9

[31] M. Rota, A. Penna and C. L. Strobbia, “Processing Italian Damage Data to Derive Typological Fragility Curves,” Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 28, No. 10-11, 2008, pp. 933-947.

[32] P. Sarabandi, D. Pachakis, S. King and A. Kiremidjian, “Development of Empirical Building Performance Functions Data from Past Earthquakes,” Proceedings of ICASP- 9, San Francisco, 6-9 July 2003, pp. 629-635.

[33] Applied Technology Council (ATC), “Earthquake Damage Evaluation Data for California,” ATC-13 Report, Redwood City, 1985.

[34] A. J. Kappos, K. Pitilakis, K. Morfidis and N. Hatzinikolaou, “Vulnerability and Risk Study of Volos (Greece) Metropolitan Area,” Proceedings of the 12th ECEE, London, Paper No.74, 9-13 September 2002.

[35] A. J. Kappos, “Seismic Vulnerability and Risk Assessment of Urban Habitat in Southern European Cities,” Proceedings of the Urban Habitat Constructions under Catastrophic Events Workshop (COST C26), Prague, 30-31 March 2007, pp. 115-129.

[36] S. Tesfamariam and M. Saatcioglu, “Risk-Based Seismic Evaluation of Reinforced Concrete Buildings,” Earthquake Spectra, Vol. 24, No. 3, 2008, pp. 795-821. doi:10.1193/1.2952767

[37] A. I. Karabinis and A. K. Eleftheriadou, “Vulnerability Assessment Derived from Earthquake Damage Data,” Proceedings of the ECCOMAS Thematic Conference on Computational Methods in Structural Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Rethymno, Paper No.12-64, 1316 June 2007.

[38] Earthquake Planning and Protection Organization (EPPO), “Guidelines and Forms for Immediate Post-Earthquake Screening of Reinforced Concrete Buildings (in Greek),” Athens, 1997.

[39] Ministry of Public Works, Earthquake Planning and Protection Organization, “Post-Earthquake Inspection of Reinforced Concrete Buildings (in Greek),” Athens, 1984.

[40] National Technical Chamber of Greece (NTCG), “Vulner ability Assessment of Buildings (in Greek),” Final Report, Technical Team No.I.2, National Programme for Earthquake Management of Existing Buildings, Earthquake Planning & Protection Organization, Athens, 2001.

[41] A. J. Kappos, K. C. Stylianidis and K. Pitilakis, “Development of Seismic Risk Scenarios Based on a Hybrid Method of Vulnerability Assessment,” Journal of Natural Hazards, Vol. 17, No. 2, 1998, pp. 177-192. doi:10.1023/A:1008083021022

[42] A. Ghobarah, “On Drift Limits Associated with Different Damage Levels,” Proceedings of International Workshop on Performance-Based Seismic Design, Department of Civil Engineering, McMaster University, Bled, 28 June-1 July 2004.

[43] R. Foltz, “Estimating Seismic Damage and Repair Costs,” MAE Center Project CM-4, The Citadel, Texas A&M, 2004, in press.

[44] E. Lekkas, “The Athens Earthquake (7 September 1999): Intensity Distribution and Controlling Factors,” Engineering Geology, Vol. 59, No. 3-4, 2001, pp. 297-311. doi:10.1016/S0013-7952(00)00119-8

[45] R. Roumelioti, A. Kiratzi and N. Theodulidis, “Stochastic Strong Ground—Motion Simulation of the 7 September 1999 Athens (Greece) Earthquake,” Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol. 94, No. 3, 2004, pp. 1036-1052.

[46] I. S. Kalogeras and G. N. Stavrakakis, “The Athens, Greece September 7th, 1999 Earthquake: Strong Motion Data Processing (7/9/1999-31/3/2000),” National Observatory of Athens, Geodynamic Institute, Athens, 2001.

[47] G. Gazetas and Collaborators, “Computational and Experimental Assessment of Strong Motion within the Meizoseismal Area of Parnitha, 7-9-99, Earthquake (in Greek),” Technical Report, Earthquake Planning and Protection Organization, Athens, 2001, pp. 1-207.