AJPS  Vol.4 No.3 A , March 2013
Recent Active Fires under El Niño Conditions in Kalimantan, Indonesia
Abstract: Analysis of the most recent 10-year periods (2002 to 2011) of MODIS hotspots data (fires) and precipitation in Palangkaraya and Pontianak was carried out to identify seasonal and spatial fire occurrence in Kalimantan under El Nino conditions, and to asses future forest condition in Kalimantan. Most data was tallied every 10-day to analyze seasonal and spatial fire occurrence. Seasonal and spatial analysis results for severe fire years, namely 2006 and 2009, under El Nino conditions were as follows: the severest fire incidents for whole Kalimantan occurred in October in 2006 under the driest conditions in both Palangkaraya and Pontianak. The severest fires for the Mega Rice Project (MRP) area and its vicinity occurred in late September in 2009 under the driest conditions for Palangkaraya. Fire activities in the last 10-year in south Central Kalimantan were severe than other areas in Kalimantan. This may be explained by different dry conditions of peat. Namely, the peat in the southern part of Central Kalimantan could become dryer under the relatively longer dry season (about 3-month) compared with other areas (dry season in West Kalimantan is only 2/3-month). One of spatial analysis results clearly showed a so-called a fire belt shape arising from severe fires that occurred mainly on the southern coastal peatlands from West to Central Kalimantan in mid October in 2006.
Cite this paper: N. Yulianti and H. Hayasaka, "Recent Active Fires under El Niño Conditions in Kalimantan, Indonesia," American Journal of Plant Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 3, 2013, pp. 685-696. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2013.43A087.

[1]   J. G. Goldammer and B. Seibert, “Natural Rain Forest Fires in Eastern Borneo during the Pleistocene and Holocene,” Nature-wissenschaften, Vol. 76, No. 11, 1989, pp. 518-520. doi:10.1007/BF00374124

[2]   D. O. Fuller and K. Murphy, “The ENSO-Fire Dynamic in Insular Southeast Asia,” Climatic Change, Vol. 74, No. 4, 2006, pp. 435-455. doi:10.1007/s10584-006-0432-5

[3]   M. J. Wooster, G. L. W. Perry and A. Zoumas, “Fire, Drought and El Ni?o Relationship on Borneo (Southeast Asia) in the Pre-MODIS Era (1980-2000),” Biogeosciences, Vol. 9, No. 1, 2012, pp. 317-340. doi:10.5194/bg-9-317-2012

[4]   K. MacKinnon, G. Hatta and A. Mangalik, “The Ecology of Kalimantan,” Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1997.

[5]   Ministry of Forestry Indonesia, “Forest Statistic in 2010,” Directorate General of Forestry Pla-nology, Jakarta, 2011.

[6]   J. Miettinen, C. Shi and S. C. Liew, “Influence of Peatland and Land Cover Distribution on Fire Regimes in Insular Southeast Asia,” Regional Environmental Change, Vol. 11, No. 1, 2011, pp. 191-201. doi:0.1007/s10113-010-0131-7

[7]   E. I. Putra, H. Hayasaka, H. Takahashi and A. Usup, “Recent Peat Fire Activity in the Mega Rice Project Area, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia,” Journal of Disaster Research, Vol. 3, No. 5, 2008, pp. 334-341.

[8]   H. Haykiri-A?ma, A. Ersoy-Meri?boyu and S. Kü?ükbayrak, “Combustion Reactivity of Different Rank Coals,” Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 43, No. 4, 2002, pp. 459-465. doi:10.1016/S0196-8904(01)00035-8

[9]   A. Hoscilo, S. E. Page, K. J. Tansey and J. O. Rieley, “Effect of Repeated Fires on Land-Cover Changes on Peatland in Southern Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, from 1973 to 2005,” International Journal of Wildland Fire, Vol. 20, No. 4, 2011, pp. 578-588. doi:10.1071/WF10029

[10]   A. Hooijer, M. Silvius, H. Wosten and S. Page, “PeatCO2: Assessment of CO2 Emission from Drained Peatlands in SE Asia,” Delft Hydraulics Report Q3943, 2006.

[11]   F. Siegert, H.-D. V. Boehm, J. O. Rieley and S. E. Page, J. Jauhiainen, H. Vasander and A. Jaya, “Peat Fires in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia: Fire Impacts and Carbon Release,” Proceedings of the International Symposium on Tropical Peatland, Jakarta, 22-23 August 2001, pp. 142-145.

[12]   T. Notohadiprawiro, “Mega-Project of Central Kalimantan Wetland Development for Food Crop Production, Belief and Truth,” Proceedings of the International Peat Sym-posium the Spirit of Peatlands, Jyvaskyla, 7-9 September 1998, pp. 14-24.

[13]   J. L. Hamada, M. D. Yamanaka, J. Matsumoto, S. Fukao, P. A. Winarso and T. Sribimawati, “Spatial and Temporal Variations of the Rainy Season over Indonesia and Their Link to ENSO,” Journal of Meteorological Society of Japan, Vol. 80, No. 2, 2002, pp. 285-310. doi:10.2151/jmsj.80.285

[14]   P. Chang, Z. Wang, J. McBride and C. H. Liu, “Annual Cycle of Southeast Asia-Maritime Con-tinent Rainfall and the Asymmetric Monsoon Transition,” Journal Climate, Vol. 18, No. 2, 2005, pp. 287-301. doi:0.1175/JCLI-3257.1

[15]   R. Dennis, “A Review of Fire Projects in Indonesia (1982-1998),” CI-FOR/ICRAF/UNESCO/EC-JRC, 1999.

[16]   K. P. Vadrevu and C. O. Justice, “Vegetation Fires in the Asian Region: Satellite Observational Needs and Priorities,” Global Environmental Research, Vol. 15, No. 1, 2011, pp. 65-76.

[17]   N. Yulianti, H. Hayasaka and A. Usup, “Recent Forest and Peat Fire Trends in Indonesia, the Latest Decade by Modis Hotspot Data,” Global Environmental Research, Vol. 16, No. 1, 2012, pp. 105-116.

[18]   A. Langner and F. Siegert, “Spatiotemporal Fire Occurrence in Borneo over a Period of 10 Years,” Global Change Biology, Vol. 15, No. 1, 2009, pp. 48-62. doi:0.1111/j.1365-2486.2008.01828.x

[19]   BPS (Badan Pusat Statistik), “Trends of the Selected Socio-Economic Indicators of Indonesia,” BPS-Statistic Indonesia, Jakarta, 2010.

[20]   Wetlands, “Maps of Area of Peatlands Distribution and Carbon Content in Kalimantan,” Wetlands International Indonesia Programme, Bogor, 2004.

[21]   S. Sabiham, “Studies on Peat in the Coastal Plains of Sumatra and Borneo,” Southeast Asian Studies, Vol. 26, No. 3, 1988, pp. 308-335.

[22]   J. Jaenicke, J. O. Rieley, C. Mott, P. Kimman and F. Siegert, “Determination of the Amount of Carbon Stored in Indonesian Peatlands,” Geoderma, Vol. 147, No. 3-4, 2008, pp. 151-158. doi:10.1016/j.geoderma.2008.08.008

[23]   E. I. Putra and H. Hayasaka, “The Effect of the Precipitation Pattern of the Dry Season on Peat Fire Occurrence in the Mega Rice Project Area, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia,” Tropics, Vol. 19, No. 4, 2011, pp. 145-156. doi:10.3759/tropics.19.145

[24]   E. Aldrian and R. D. Susanto, “Identification of Three Dominant Rainfall Regions within Indonesia and Their Relationship to Sea Surface Temperature,” International Journal Climatology, Vol. 23, No. 12, 2003, pp. 1435-1452. doi:10.1002/joc.950

[25]   F. Siegert and A. A. Hoffmann, “The 1998 Forest Fires in East Kalimantan (Indonesia): A Quantitative Evaluation Using High Resolution, Multi-temporal ERS-2 SAR Images and NOAA-AVHRR Hotspot Data,” Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 72, No. 1, 2000, pp. 64-77. doi:10.1016/S0034-4257(99)00092-9

[26]   National Ocean and Atmosphere Administration (NOAA), “El Ni?o and La Ni?a Years and Intensities,” 2012.

[27]   A. Usup, Y. Hashimoto, H. Takahashi and H. Hayasaka, “Combustion and Thermal Characteristics of Peat Fire in Tropical Peatland in Central Kalimantan,” Tropics, Vol. 14, No. 1, 2004, pp. 1-19. doi:10.3759/tropics.14.1