EPE  Vol.5 No.2 , March 2013
Investigating Diesel Engine Performance and Emissions Using CFD

Fluid flow in an internal combustion engine presents one of the most challenging fluid dynamics problems to model. This is because the flow is associated with large density variations. So, a detailed understanding of the flow and combustion processes is required to improve performance and reduce emissions without compromising fuel economy. The simulation carried out in the present work to model DI diesel engine with bowl in piston for better understanding of the in cylinder gas motion with details of the combustion process that are essential in evaluating the effects of ingesting synthetic atmosphere on engine performance. This is needed for the course of developing a non-air recycle diesel with exhaust management system [1]. A simulation was carried out using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code FLU- ENT. The turbulence and combustion processes are modeled with sufficient generality to include spray formation, delay period, chemical kinetics and on set of ignition. Results from the simulation compared well with that of experimental results. The model proved invaluable in obtaining details of the in cylinder flow patterns, combustion process and combustion species during the engine cycle. The results show that the model over predicting the maximum pressure peak by 6%, (p-θ), (p-v) diagrams for different engine loads are predicted. Also the study shows other engine parameters captured by the simulation such as engine emissions, fuel mass fraction, indicated gross work, ignition delay period and heat release rate.

Cite this paper: T. Belal, E. Marzouk and M. Osman, "Investigating Diesel Engine Performance and Emissions Using CFD," Energy and Power Engineering, Vol. 5 No. 2, 2013, pp. 171-180. doi: 10.4236/epe.2013.52017.

[1]   G. T. R. Reader, M. Zheng, I. J. Potter and J. G. Hawley, “Investigation of Non-Air Diesel Engine Systems,” 28th Inter-Socity Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, San Diego, 1992.

[2]   K. Fukuda, A. Ghasemi, R. Barron and R. Balachandar, “An Open Cycle Simulation of DI Diesel Engine Flow Field Effect on Spray Processes,” SAE Technical Paper 2012-01-0696, 2012. doi:10.4271/2012-01-0696

[3]   A. S. Kuleshov, “Multi-Zone DI Diesel Spray Combustion Model for Thermodynamic Simulation of Engine with PCCI and High EGR Level,” SAE Paper No 2009- 01-1956, 2009.

[4]   H. Barths, H. Pitsch and N. Peters, “3d Simulation of Di Diesel Combustion and Pollutant Formation Using a TwoComponent Reference Fuel,” Oil & Gas Science and Technology, Vol. 54, No. 2, 1999.

[5]   L. V. Griend, M. E. Feldman and C. L. Peterson, “Modeling Combustion of Alternate Fuels in a DI Diesel Engine Using KIVA,” ASAE, Vol. 33, No. 2, 1990, pp. 342-350.

[6]   B. A. Cantrell, R. D. Reitz, C. J. Rutland and Y. Immamori, “Strategies for Reducing the Computational Time of Diesel Engine CFD Simulations,” International Multidimensional Engine Modeling User’s Group Meeting, SAE Congress, 23 April 2012

[7]   S. A. Basha and K. R. Gopal, “In-Cylinder Fluid Flow Turbulence and Spray Models,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 13, No. 6-7, 2008, pp. 1620-1627.

[8]   S. M. Jameel Basha, P. Issac Prasad and K. Rajagopal, “Simulation of In-Cylinder Processes in a DI Diesel Engine with Various Injection Timings,” ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2009.

[9]   U. V. Kongre and V. K. Sunnapwar, “CFD Modeling and Experimental Validation of Combustion in Direct Ignition Engine Fueled with Diesel,” International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, Vol. 1, No. 3, 2010.

[10]   Fluent-ANSYI, “FLUENT 6.3.26. 2006. User’s Manual and Tutorial Guide,” Fluent Inc., 2006.

[11]   KHD Deutz, “FL 511/W Instruction Manual,” 2973544D/ E, 2000.

[12]   Oruva Motor, “F1L511 Diesel Engine Technical Data,” Licensed from Dutez, 2000.

[13]   A. M. Nour, E. M. Marzouk, A. A. Abel Rahman and W. A. Abdel Ghafar, “Effect of Carbon Dioxide in Non-Air Inlet Mixture on Combustion performance in Diesel Engine,” IREME, 2009

[14]   B. E. Launder and D. B. Spalding, “Lectures in Mathematical Models of Turbulence,” Academic Press, London, 1972.

[15]   B. F. Magnussen, “On the Structure of Turbulence and a Generalized Eddy Dissipation Concept for Chemical Reaction in Turbulent Flow,” Nineteenth AIAA Meeting, St. Louis, 1981.

[16]   G. L. Borman and K. W. Ragland, “Combustion Engineering,” WCB, McGraw-Hill, 1998.

[17]   H. O. Hardenburg and F. W. Hase, “An Empirical Formula for Computing the Pressure Rise Delay of a Fuel from Its Cetane Number and from the Relevant Parameters of Direct Injection Diesel Engines,” SAE Technical Paper 790493, SAE, 1979.

[18]   P. J. O’Rourke and A. A. Amsden, “The TAB Method for Numerical Calculation of Spray Droplet Breakup,” SAE Technical Paper 872089, SAE, 1987.

[19]   R. D. Reitz, “Mechanisms of Atomization Processes in High-Pressure Vaporizing Sprays,” Atomization and Spray Technology, Vol. 3, No. 4, 1987, pp. 309-337.

[20]   R. D. Reitz and F. V. Bracco, “Mechanisms of Breakup of Round Liquid Jets,” The Encyclopedia of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 3, 1986, pp. 223-249.

[21]   P. A. Tesner, T. D. Snegiriova and V. G. Knorre, “Kinetics of Dispersed Carbon Formation,” Combustion and Flame, Vol. 17, No. 2, 1971, pp. 253-260. doi:10.1016/S0010-2180(71)80168-2

[22]   J. F. Wiedenhoefer and R. D. Reitz, “Multidimensional Modeling of the Effects of Radiation and Soot Deposition in Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines,” SP-1740 SAE 2003-01- 0560, 2003, pp. 251-271.

[23]   J. B. Heywood, “Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals,” McGraw Hill, New York, 1988.