JECTC  Vol.3 No.1 , March 2013
A Study of Water Supercooling
ABSTRACT

The objective of this paper is to investigate water supercooling. Supercooling occurs when a liquid does not freeze although its temperature is below its freezing point. In general, supercooling is an unstable condition and occurs under special conditions. The parameters that influence supercooling stability and probability of occurrence include freezer temperature and water’s initial temperature. In this paper, it is shown that with a freezer temperature range of -3 to -8, supercooling is most likely to happen and is independent of the water’s initial temperature. Furthermore, as the freezer temperature decreases, the probability of nucleation increases, causing instant freezing. Finally, it is concluded that the Mpemba effect, in which initially hot water freezes faster than initially cold water, is due to the supercooling instability in initially hot water in which nucleation agents are more active.


Cite this paper
Gholaminejad, A. and Hosseini, R. (2013) A Study of Water Supercooling. Journal of Electronics Cooling and Thermal Control, 3, 1-6. doi: 10.4236/jectc.2013.31001.
References
[1]   C. James, V. Seignemartin and S. J. James, “The Freezing and Supercooling of Garlic (Allium sativum L.),” International Journal of Refrigeration, Vol. 32, No. 2, 2009, pp. 253-260. doi:10.1016/j.ijrefrig.2008.05.012,

[2]   A. DeVries, “Biological Antifreeze Agents in Coldwater Fishes,” Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Physiology, Vol. 73, No. 4, 1982, pp. 627-640. doi:10.1016/0300-9629(82)90270-5,

[3]   F. Brown, “The Frequent Bursting of Hot Water Pipes in Household Plumbing Systems,” Physical Review, Vol. 8, No. 5, 1916, pp. 500-503. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.8.500

[4]   N. Dorsey, “The Freezing of Supercooled Water,” Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. 38, No. 3, 1948, pp. 246-328. doi:10.2307/1005602

[5]   S. Mossop, “The Freezing of Supercooled Water,” Proceedings of the Physical Society. Section B, Vol. 68, No. 4, 1955, pp. 193-208. doi:10.1088/0370-1301/68/4/301

[6]   R. Gilpin, “The Effects of Dendritic Ice Formation in Water Pipes,” International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 20, No. 6, 1977, pp. 693-699. doi:10.1016/0017-9310(77)90057-6,

[7]   D. Auerbach, “Supercooling and the Mpemba Effect: When Hot Water Freezes Quicker than Cold,” American Journal of Physics, Vol. 63, No. 10, 1995, pp. 882-885. doi:10.1119/1.18059

[8]   K. Zachariassen and E. Kristiansen, “Ice Nucleation and Antinucleation in Nature,” Cryobiology, Vol. 41, No. 4, 2000, pp. 257-279.

[9]   R. Martins and V. Lopes, “Modelling Supercooling in Frozen Strawberries: Experimental Analysis, Cellular Automation and Inverse Problem Methodology,” Journal of Food Engineering, Vol. 80, No. 1, 2007, pp. 126-141. doi:10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2006.05.009

[10]   M. Jeng, “The Mpemba Effect: When Can Hot Water Freezes Faster than Cold?” American Journal of Physics, Vol. 74, No. 6, 2006, pp. 514-523. doi:10.1119/1.2186331

[11]   I. Firth, “Cooler,” Physics Education, Vol. 6, No. 1, 1971, pp. 32-41. doi:10.1088/0031-9120/6/1/310

[12]   M. Freeman, “Cooler Still—An Answer?” Physics Education, Vol. 14, No. 7, 1979, pp. 417-421. doi:10.1088/0031-9120/14/7/314

[13]   B. Wojciechowski, I. Owczarek and G. Bednarz, “Freezing of Aqueous Solutions Containing Gases,” Crystal Research Technology, Vol. 23, No. 7, 1988, pp. 843-848.

[14]   E. Mpemba and D. Osborne, “Cool?” Physics Education, Vol. 4, No. 3, 1969, pp. 172-175. doi:10.1088/0031-9120/4/3/312

[15]   G. Kell, “The Freezing of Hot and Cold Water,” American Journal of Physics, Vol. 37, No. 5, 1969, pp. 564-565. doi:10.1119/1.1975687

[16]   E. Deeson, “Cooler-Lower Down,” American Journal of Physics, Vol. 6, No. , 1971, pp. 42-44. doi:10.1088/0031-9120/6/1/311

[17]   R. Pearce, “Plant Freezing and Damage,” Annals of Botany, Vol. 87, No. 4, 2001, pp. 417-424.

 
 
Top