ABSTRACT Chitosan (CS) microparticles with and without cross-linking were prepared by a water-in-oil emulsion solvent diffusion method without any surfactants. Aqueous CS solution and ethyl ace- tate were used as water and oil phases, respectively. Genipin was used as a cross-linker. Influ- ences of genipin ratios and cross-linking times on CS microparticle characteristics were investigated. Non-cross-linked and cross-linked CS microparticles were spherical in shape and rough in surface. Microparticle matrices showed porous structures. Surface roughness, mean par- ticle sizes and bulk density of CS microparticles increased and their dissolutions in acetic acid solution decreased when genipin ratio and cross- linking time increased.
Cite this paper
Karnchanajindanun, J. , Srisa-ard, M. , Srihanam, P. and Baimark, Y. (2010) Preparation and characterization of genipin-cross-linked chitosan microparticles by water-in-oil emulsion solvent diffusion method. Natural Science, 2, 1061-1065. doi: 10.4236/ns.2010.210131.
 Kumar, M.N.V.R., Muzzarelli, R.A.A., Muzzarelli, C., Sashiwa, H. and Domb, A.J. (2004) Chitosan chemistry and pharmaceutical perspectives. Chemical Review, 104, 6017-6084.
Muzzarelli, R.A.A. and Muzzarelli, C. (2005) Chitosan chemistry: Relevance to the biomedical sciences. Advan- ces in Polymer Science, 186, 151-209.
Crini, G. (2005) Recent developments in polysaccharide- based materials used as adsorbents in wastewater treatment. Progress in Polymer Science, 30, 38-70.
Learoyd, T.P., Burrows, J.L., French, E. and Seville, P.C. (2008) Modified release of beclometasone dipropionate from chitosan-based spray-dried respirable powders. Pow- der Technology, 187, 231-238.
Agnihotri, S.A., Mallikarjuna, N.N. and Aminabhavi, T. M. (2004) Recent advances on chitosan-based micro- and nanoparticles in drug delivery. Journal of Controlled Release, 100, 5-28.
Mi, F.L., Shyu, S.S. and Peng, C.K. (2005) Characterization of ring-opening Polymerization of genipin and pH- dependent cross-linking reactions between chitosan and genipin, Journal of Polymer Science, Part A: Polymer Chemistry, 43, 1985-2000.
Nishi, C., Nakajima, N. and Ikada, Y. (1995) In vitro evaluation of cytotoxicity of diepoxy compounds used for biomaterial modification. Journal of Biomedical Material Research, 29, 829-834.
Yuan, Y., Chesnutt, B.M., Utturkarr, G., Haggard, W.O., Yang, Y., Ong, J.L. and Bumgardner, J.D. (2007) The effect of cross-linking of chitosan microspheres with geni- pin on protein release. Carbohydrate Polymers, 68, 561- 567.
Silva, S.S., Motta, A., Rodrigues, M.T., Pinheiro, A.F.M., Gomes, M.E., Mano, J.F., Reis, R.L. and Migliaresi, C. (2008) Novel genipin-cross-linked chitosan/silk fibroin sponges for cartilage engineering strategies. Biomacromo- lecules, 9, 2764-2774.
Muzzarelli, R.A.A. (2009) Genipin-crosslinked chitosan hydrogels as biomedical and pharmaceutical aids. Carbo- hydrate Polymers, 77, 1-9.