ABB  Vol.4 No.3 A , March 2013
Use of Escherichia coli toxins in sepsis models
Abstract: The high prevalence of sepsis in intensive care units and emergency rooms, along with the high lethality of the sepsis cases makes the study of pathophysiology of sepsis critically important. As a preclinical model, endotoxemia is an important tool to study the pathophysiology of sepsis and septic shock. In this review, we discussed aspects of endotoxemia as an experimental model in sepsis research, including different techniques associated with the purification of the endotoxin of Escherichia coli, serotype dependency and dosage dependency of the experimental results.
Cite this paper: Burkovskiy, I. , Zhou, J. and Lehmann, C. (2013) Use of Escherichia coli toxins in sepsis models. Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology, 4, 424-429. doi: 10.4236/abb.2013.43A056.

[1]   Wheeler, A.P. and Bernard, G.R. (1999) Treating patients with severe sepsis. The New England Journal of Medicine, 340, 207-214. doi:10.1056/NEJM199901213400307

[2]   Parrillo, J.E., Parker, M.M., Natanson, C., Suffredini, A.F., Danner, R.L., Cunnion, R.E. and Ognibene, F.P. (1990) Septic shock in humans. Advances in the understanding of pathogenesis, cardiovascular dysfunction, and therapy. Annals of Internal Medicine, 113, 227-242.

[3]   Letarte, J., Longo, C.J., Pelletier, J., Nabonne, B. and Fisher, H.N. (2002) Patient characteristics and costs of severe sepsis and septic shock in Quebec. Journal of Critical Care, 17, 9-49. doi:10.1053/jcrc.2002.33028

[4]   Chalfin, D.B., Holbein, M.E., Fein, A.M. and Carlon, G.C. (1993) Cost-effectiveness of monoclonal antibodies to gram-negative endotoxin in the treatment of gram-negative sepsis in ICU patients. JAMA, 269, 249-254. doi:10.1001/jama.1993.03500020083037

[5]   Angus, D.C., Linde-Zwirble, W.T., Lidicker, J., Clermont, G., Carcillo, J. and Pinsky, M.R. (2001) Epidemiology of severe sepsis in the United States: Analysis of incidence, outcome, and associated costs of care. Critical Care Medicine, 29, 1303-1310. doi:10.1097/00003246-200107000-00002

[6]   Perl, T.M., Dvorak, L., Hwang, T. and Wenzel, R.P. (1995) Long-term survival and function after suspected gramnegative sepsis. JAMA, 274, 338-345. doi:10.1001/jama.1995.03530040066043

[7]   Heyland, D.K., Hopman, W., Coo, H., Tranmer, J. and McColl, M.A. (2000) Long-term health-related quality of life in survivors of sepsis: Short Form-36: A valid and reliable measure of health-related quality of life. Critical Care Medicine, 28, 3599-3605. doi:10.1097/00003246-200011000-00006

[8]   Martin, G.S., Mannino, D.M., Eaton, S. and Moss, M. (2003) The epidemiology of sepsis in the United States from 1979 through 2000. The New England Journal of Medicine, 348, 1546-1554. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa022139

[9]   Bone, R.C., Balk, R.A., Cerra, F.B., Dellinger, R.P., Fein, A.M., Knaus, W.A., Schein, R.M. and Sibbald, W.J. (1992) Definitions for sepsis and organ failure and guidelines for the use of innovative therapies in sepsis. The ACCP/SCCM Consensus Conference Committee. American College of Chest Physicians/Society of Critical Care Medicine. Chest, 101, 1644-1655. doi:10.1378/chest.101.6.1644

[10]   Salomao, R., Rigato, O., Pignatari, A.C., Freudenberg, M. A. and Galanos, C. (1999) Bloodstream infections: Epidemiology, pathophysiology and therapeutic perspectives. Infection, 27, 1-11. doi:10.1007/BF02565163

[11]   Vincent, J.L., Rello, J., Marshall, J., Silva, E., Anzueto, A., Martin, C.D., Moreno, R., Lipman, J., Gomersall, C., Sakr, Y., et al. (2009) EPIC II group of investigators: International study of the prevalence and outcomes of infection in intensive care units. JAMA, 302, 2323-2329. doi:10.1001/jama.2009.1754

[12]   Schultz, M.J., Knapp, S. and van der Poll, T. (2002) Regulatory role of alveolar macrophages and cytokines in pulmonary host defense. Yearbook of Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine, Springer Verlag, 65-76.

[13]   Wichterman, K.A., Baue, A.E. and Chaudry, I.H. (1980) Sepsis and septic shock—A review of laboratory models and a proposal. Journal of Surgical Research, 29, 189-201. doi:10.1016/0022-4804(80)90037-2

[14]   Deitch, E.A. (1998) Animal models of sepsis and shock: A review and lessons learned. Shock, 9, 1-11. doi:10.1097/00024382-199801000-00001

[15]   Fink, M.P. and Heard, S.O. (1990) Laboratory models of sepsis and septic shock. Journal of Surgical Research, 49, 186-196. doi:10.1016/0022-4804(90)90260-9

[16]   Fink, M.P., Morrissey, P.E., Stein, K.L., Clement, R.E., Fiallo, V. and Gardiner, W.M. (1988) Systemic and regional hemodynamic effects of cyclo-oxygenase and thromboxane synthetase inhibition in normal and hyperdynamic endotoxemic rabbits. Circulatory Shock, 26, 41-57.

[17]   Mehrad, B. and Standiford, T.J. (1999) Role of cytokines in pulmonary antimicrobial host defense. Immunologic Research, 20, 15-27. doi:10.1007/BF02786504

[18]   Sewnath, M.E., Olszyna, D.P., Birjmohun, R., Ten Kate, F.J., Gouma, D.J. and van der Poll, T. (2001) IL-10-deficient mice demonstrate multiple organ failure and increased mortality during Escherichia coli peritonitis despite an accelerated bacterial clearance. The Journal of Immunology, 166, 6323-6331.

[19]   Emerson Jr., T.E. and Gill, C.C. (1967) Effects of slow intravenous endotoxin infusion on hemodynamics and survival in dogs. Journal of Applied Physiology, 22, 874-877.

[20]   Fish, R.E. and Spitzer, J.A. (1984) Continuous infusion of endotoxin from an osmotic pump in the conscious, unrestrained rat: A unique model of chronic endotoxemia. Circulatory Shock, 12, 135-149.

[21]   Fish, R.E., Burns, A.H., Lang, C.H. and Spitzer, J.A. (1985) Myocardial dysfunction in a non-lethal, non-shock model of chronic endotoxemia. Circulatory Shock, 16, 241-252.

[22]   Fish, R.E., Lang, C.H. and Spitzer, J.A. (1986) Regional blood flow during continuous low-dose endotoxin infusion. Circulatory Shock, 18, 267-275.

[23]   Kurtz, H.J. and Quast, J. (1982) Effects of continuous intravenous infusion of Escherichia coli endotoxin into swine. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 43, 262-268.

[24]   Fink, M.P., Cohn, S.M., Lee, P.C., Rothschild, H.R., Deniz, Y.F., Wang, H., et al. (1989) Effect of lipopolysaccharide on intestinal intramucosal hydrogen ion concentration in pigs: Evidence of gut ischemia in a normodynamic model of septic shock. Critical Care Medicine, 17, 641-646. doi:10.1097/00003246-198907000-00009

[25]   Breslow, M.J., Miller, C.F., Parker, S.D., Walman, A.T. and Traystman, R.J. (1987) Effect of vasopressors on organ blood flow during endotoxin shock in pigs. American Journal of Physiology, 252, 291-300.

[26]   Fink, M.P., Fiallo, V., Stein, K.L. and Gardiner, W.M. (1987) Systemic and regional hemodynamic changes after intraperitoneal endotoxin in rabbits: Development of a new model of the clinical syndrome of hyperdynamic sepsis. Circulatory Shock, 22, 73-81.

[27]   Raetz, C.R. and Whitfield, C. (2002) Lipopolysaccharide endotoxins. Annual Review of Biochemistry, 71, 635-700. doi:10.1146/annurev.biochem.71.110601.135414

[28]   Rietschel, E.T., Kirikae, T., Schade, F.U., Mamat, U., Schmidt, G., Loppnow, H., Ulmer, A.J., Zahringer, U., Seydel, U. and Padova, D.F., et al. (1994) Bacterial endotoxin: Molecular relationships of structure to activity and function. FASEB Journal, 8, 217-225.

[29]   Hinshaw, L.B. (1984) Handbook of endotoxin: Pathophysiology of endotoxin, Vol. II. Elsevier/North Holland Biomedical, Amsterdam.

[30]   Suffredini, A.F., Fromm, R.E., Parker, M.M., Brenner, M. and Kovacs, J.A. (1989) The cardiovascular response of normal humans to the administration of endotoxin. The New England Journal of Medicine, 321, 280-287. doi:10.1056/NEJM198908033210503

[31]   Raetz, C.R.H. (1990) Biochemistry of endotoxins. Annual Reviews in Biochemistry, 59, 129-170. doi:10.1146/

[32]   Raetz, C.R.H. and Niedhardt, F.C. (1996) Escherichia coli and salmonella: Cellular and molecular biology. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC, 1035-1063.

[33]   Z?hringer, U., Lindner, B. and Rietschel, E.T. (1999) Endotoxin in health and disease. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, 93-114.

[34]   Brade, H., Opal, S.M., Vogel, S.N. and Morrison, D.C. (1999) Endotoxin in health and disease. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, 950.

[35]   Onishi, H.R., Pelak, B.A., Gerckens, L.S., Silver, L.L. and Kahan, F.M. (1996) Antibacterial agents that inhibit lipid a biosynthesis. Science, 274, 980-982. doi:10.1126/science.274.5289.980

[36]   Vaara, M. (1993) Antimicrob. Agents Chemother, 37, 2255-2260. doi:10.1128/AAC.37.11.2255

[37]   Salomao, R., Brunialti, M.K., Rapozo, M.M., Baggio-Zappia, G.L., Galanos, C. and Freudenberg, M. (2012) Bacterial sensing, cell signaling, and modulation of the immune response during sepsis. Shock, 38, 227-242. doi:10.1097/SHK.0b013e318262c4b0

[38]   Rietschel, E.Th. (1984) Handbook of endotoxin: Chemistry of endotoxin, Vol. I. Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical, Amsterdam.

[39]   Galanos, C., Rictschel, E.Th., Liideritz, O. and Westphal, O. (1977) International review of biochemistry: Biochemistry of lipids II. University Park Press, Baltimore, 239-335.

[40]   Dinarello, C.A. (1986) Interleukin-1. Reviews of Infectious Diseases, 6, 51-95. doi:10.1093/clinids/6.1.51

[41]   Loppnow, H., Brade, H., Diirrbaum, I., Dinarello, C.A., Kusumoto, S., Rietschel, E.T. and Flad, H.D. (1989) IL-1 induction-capacity of defined lipopolysaccharide partial structures. The Journal of Immunology, 142, 3229-3238.

[42]   Beutler, B. and Cerami, A. (1988) The history, properties, and biological effects of cachectin. Biochemistry, 27, 7575-7582. doi:10.1021/bi00420a001

[43]   Old, L.J. (1988) Tumor necrosis factor. Scientific American, 258, 59-75. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0588-59

[44]   Kiener, P.A., Marek, F., Rodgers, G., Lin, P.F., Warr, G. and Desiderio, J. (1988) Induction of tumor necrosis factor, IFN-gamma, and acute lethality in mice by toxic and non-toxic forms of lipid A. The Journal of Immunology, 141, 870-874.

[45]   Wolpe, S.D., Davatelis, G., Sherry, B., Beutler, B. and Hesse, D.G. (1988) Macrophages secrete a novel heparin-binding protein with inflammatory and neutrophil chemokinetic properties. The Journal of Experimental Medicine, 167, 570-581. doi:10.1084/jem.167.2.570

[46]   Luderitz, O.A., Staub, M. and Westphal. O. (1966) Immunochemistry of O and R antigens of salmonella and related enterobacteriace. Bacteriological Reviews, 30, 192-255.

[47]   Johnson, K.G. and Perry, M.B. (1975) Improved techniques for the preparation of bacterial lipopolysaccharides. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 22, 29-34. doi:10.1139/m76-004

[48]   Adams, G.A. (1972) Lipopolysaccharides. Preparation from gram-negative bacteria. In: Whistler, R.L. and BeMille, J.N., Eds., Methods in Carbohydrate Chemistry, Academic Press, Inc., New York, 157-161.

[49]   Fensoma, H. and Gray, G.W. (1969) The chemical composition of lipopolysaccharide of Pseudonomas aeruginosa. Biochemical Journal, 114, 185-196.

[50]   Leive, L. and Morris, D. (1972) Isolation of lipopolysaccharides from bacteria. In: Ginsburg, N., Ed., Methods in Enzymology, 254-262.

[51]   Nishimura, L.S., Ferreira, L.C., Pacheco, A.B. and Guth, B.E. (1996) Relationship between outer membrane protein and lipopolysaccharide profiles and serotypes of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli isolated in Brazil. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 143, 253-258. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6968.1996.tb08489.x

[52]   Dogan, M.D., Ataoglu, H. and Akarsu, E.S. (2000) Effects of different serotypes of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharides on body temperature in rats. Life Sciences, 67, 2319-2329. doi:10.1016/S0024-3205(00)00821-3

[53]   Nedrebo, T. and Reed, R.K. (2001) Different serotypes of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) cause different increases in albumin extravasation in rats. Shock, 18, 138-141. doi:10.1097/00024382-200208000-00008

[54]   Jacobsen, S., Andersen, P.H., Toelboell, T. and Heegaard, P.M. (2004) Dose dependency and individual variability of the lipopolysaccharide-induced bovine acute phase protein response. Journal of Dairy Science, 10, 3330-3339. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(04)73469-4