PSYCH  Vol.4 No.3 A , March 2013
Sequential Stimulus Pairing Procedure for the Students with Intellectual Disabilities
ABSTRACT

For most of students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and Williams syndrome (WS), a rare genetic neurodevelopmental disorder, are known to have intellectual disabilities (ID). Students with ID often show the difficulties in reading. Especially, they are difficult to acquire the equivalence relations among pictures, written letters, and sounds and to have fluent eye movement during reading. Previous research suggested that a student with autism acquired Kanji reading skills by using stimulus pairing training. However, for acquiring word reading skills, new training which facilitates the fluent eye movement is necessary and we developed sequential stimulus pairing training. In the present study, we examined the acquisition of word reading skills through sequential stimulus pairing training for three students with ID who were also diagnosed as WS and three students with ID who were not diagnosed with WS. In a trial, each letters, the word, spoken sound, and picture were presented sequentially. With 6 students, result indicated that they could acquire the word reading skills, and also showed the improvement of their eye movement in reading. The result suggested sequential stimulus pairing training is effective to acquire both equivalence relations and fluent eye movement for wide range of students with ID.


Cite this paper
Omori, M. & Yamamoto, J. (2013). Sequential Stimulus Pairing Procedure for the Students with Intellectual Disabilities. Psychology, 4, 238-245. doi: 10.4236/psych.2013.43A036.
References
[1]   Akita, K., & Hatano, G. (1999). Learning to read and write in Japanese. In Harris, M., & Hatano, G. (Eds.), Learning to read and write: A cross-linguistic perspective (pp. 214-234), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[2]   Allor, J. H., Mathes, P. G., Roberts, J. K., Jones, F. G., & Champlin, T. (2010). Teaching students with moderate intellectual disabilities to read: An experimental examination of a comprehensive reading intervention. Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 45, 3-22. http://www.daddcec.org/Portals/0/CEC/Autism_Disabilities/Research/Publications/Education_Training_Development_Disabilities/Full_Journals/ETDD201003V45n1.pdf#page=6

[3]   Allor, J. H., Mathes, P. G., Roberts, J. K., Cheatham, J., & Champlin, T. (2010). Comprehensive reading instruction for students with intellectual disabilities: Findings from the first three years of a longitudenal study. Psychology in the Schools, 47, 445-466. doi:10.1002/pits.20482

[4]   American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington DC: Author.

[5]   Bellugi, U., Lichtenberger, L., Jones, W., Lai, Z., & St. George, M. (2000). The neurocognitive profile of Williams syndrome: A complex pattern of strengths and weaknesses. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 12, 7-29. doi:10.1162/089892900561959

[6]   Braddick, O., & Atkinson, J. (2011). Development of human visual function. Vision Research, 51, 1588-1600. doi:10.1016/j.visres.2011.02.018

[7]   Brenner, L. A., Turner, K. C., & Muller, R. (2007). Eye movement and visual search: Are there elementary abnormalities in autism? Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37, 1289-1309. doi:10.1007/s10803-006-0277-9

[8]   Clayton, M., & Hayes, L. (2004). A comparison of match-to-sample and respondent-type training of equivalence classes. The Psychological Record, 54, 579-602. http://opensiuc.lib.siu.edu/tpr/vol54/iss4/6/

[9]   Cohen, J. (1968). Weighted kappa: Nominal scale agreement with provisions for scale disagreement or partial credit. Psychological Bulletin, 70, 313-320. doi:10.1037/h0026256

[10]   Dube, W. V., Dickson, C. A., Balsamo, L. M., O’Donnel, K., L., Tomanari, G. Y., Farren, K. M., Wheeler, E. E., & McIlvane, W. J. (2010). Observing behavior and atypically restricted stimulus control. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 94, 297-313. doi:10.1901/jeab.2010.94-297

[11]   Ikuzawa, M., Matsushita, Y., & Nakase, A. (2002). Kyoto Scale of Psychological Development 2001. Kyoto: Kyoto International Social Welfare Exchange Centre.

[12]   LaMalfa, G., Lassi, G., Bertelli, M., Salvini, R., & Placidi, G. F. (2004). Autism and intellectual disability: A study of prevalence on a sample of the Italian population. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 48, 262-267. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2788.2003.00567.x

[13]   Leader, G., & Barnes-Holmes, D. (2001). Matching-to-sample and respondent-type training as methods for producing equivalence relations: Isolating the critical variable. The Psychological Record, 51, 429-444. http://opensiuc.lib.siu.edu/tpr/vol51/iss3/5/

[14]   Ledford, J. R., Gast, D. L., Luscre, D., & Ayres, K. M. (2008). Observational and incidental learning by students with autism during small group instruction. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38, 86-103. doi:10.1007/s10803-007-0363-7

[15]   National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (2000). Teaching students to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction. Washington DC: US Government Printing Office. http://www.nichd.nih.gov/publications/nrp/upload/report.pdf

[16]   Omori, M., Sugasawara, H., & Yamamoto, J. (2011). Acquisition and transfer of English as a second language through the constructional response matching-to-sample procedure for students with developmental disabilities. Psychology, 2, 552-559. doi:10.4236/psych.2011.26085

[17]   Pilgrim, C., Jackson, J., & Galizio, M. (2000). Acquisition of arbitrary conditional discriminations by young normally developing students. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 73, 177-193. doi:10.1901/jeab.2000.73-177

[18]   Rayner, K. (2009). Eye movements and attention in reading, scene perception, and visual search. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 62, 1457-1506. doi:10.1080/17470210902816461

[19]   Ruwe, K., McLaughlin, T. F., Derby, K. M., & Johnson, J. (2011). The multiple effects of direct instruction flashcards on sight word acquisition, passage reading, and errors for three middle school students with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 23, 241-255. doi:10.1007/s10882-010-9220-2

[20]   Shaywitz, S. E. (2003). Overcoming dyslexia. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

[21]   Shaywitz, S. E., & Shaywitz, B. A. (2008) Paying attention to reading: The neurobiology of reading and dyslexia. Development and Psychopathology, 20, 1329-1349. doi:10.1017/S0954579408000631

[22]   Sidman, M. (2000). Equivalence relations and the reinforcement contingency. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 74, 127-146. doi:10.1901/jeab.2000.74-127

[23]   Serna, R. W., Dube, W. V., & McIlvane, W. J. (1997). Assessing same/ different judgments in individuals with severe intellectual disabilities: A status report. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 18, 343-368. doi:10.1016/S0891-4222(97)00015-2

[24]   Stein. J. (2003). Visual motion sensitivity and reading. Neuropsychologia, 41, 1785-1793. doi:10.1016/S0028-3932(03)00179-9

[25]   Stein, J., & Talcott, J. (1999). Impaired neuronal timing in developmental dyslexia: The magnocellular hypothesis. Dyslexia, 5, 59-77. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-0909(199906)5:2<59::AID-DYS134>3.0.CO;2-F

[26]   Stromer, R., Mackay, H. A., Howell, S. R., McVay, A. A., & Flusser, D. (1996). Teaching computer-based spelling to individuals with developmental and hearing disabilities: Transfer of stimulus control to writing tasks. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 29, 25-42. doi:10.1901/jaba.1996.29-25

[27]   Takahashi, K., Yamamoto, J., & Noro, F. (2011). Stimulus pairing training in students with autism spectrum disorder. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 5, 547-553. doi:10.1016/j.rasd.2010.06.021

[28]   Ueno, K., Nagoshi, N., & Konuki, S. (2008). Picture vocabulary test-revised manual. Tokyo : Nihon Bunka Kagakusha.

[29]   Wechsler, D. (1998). Wechsler intelligence scales for students (3rd ed.). San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.

[30]   Wydell, T. N., & Butterworth, B. L. (1999). A case study of an English-Japanese bilingual with monolingual dyslexia. Cognition, 70, 273-305. doi:10.1016/S0010-0277(99)00016-5

[31]   Yamamoto, J. (1994). Functional analysis of verbal behavior in handicapped students. In S. C. Hayes, L. J. Hayes, M. Sato, & K. Ono (Eds.), Behavior analysis of language and cognition (pp. 107-122). Reno, NV: Context Press.

[32]   Yamamoto, J., & Shimizu, H. (2001). Acquisition and expansion of Kanji vocabulary through computer-based teaching in a student with mental retardation: Analysis by equivalence relations. Japanese Journal of Special Education, 38, 17-31. http://ci.nii.ac.jp/els/110006785555.pdf?id=ART0008730845&type=pdf&lang=jp&host=cinii&order_no=&ppv_type=0&lang_sw=&no=1328584307&cp=

 
 
Top