Olfactory stimulation has been reported to trigger waking up during night sleep, and to affect the sympathetic nervous system and blood pressure of humans via the circadian clock system. Olfactory stimulation may promote better sleep health in Japanese students living in 24-hour society, but no studies have been done on this hypothesis. The purpose of this study is to make it clear what are the effects of makeup, perfume and skin care products on the circadian typology, sleep habits and mental health of female Japanese students aged 18 - 30 using an integrated questionnaire. Students who regularly used skin care products went to bed earlier on both weekdays and weekends and also got up earlier in the morning on weekdays than those who did not (p < 0.05). The students who wore makeup two or more days per week showed higher sleep quality than those who were makeup only one day a week or less (p < 0.05). The students who regularly carried out a hair care regimen showed a significantly lower frequency of becoming angry after a small trigger and of losing control due to anger than those who did not. Makeup, perfume and skin care products might be possible to be related to better sleep health for students. Moreover, hair care may help maintain mental health in female students. Makeup, perfume and skin care products might be implied to become chemical, mechanical and/or psychological stimuli as zeitgebers for circadian clock of students.
Cite this paper
Nishihara, R. , Wada, K. , Akimitsu, O. , Krejci, M. , Noji, T. , Nakade, M. , Takeuchi, H. & Harada, T. (2013). Effects of Makeup, Perfume and Skincare Product Usage and Hair Care Regimen on Circadian Typology, Sleep Habits and Mental Health in Female Japanesestudents Aged 18 - 30. Psychology, 4, 183-188. doi: 10.4236/psych.2013.43028.
 Borio, A, Heike, W., Karl, H., Joachim, T., & Thomas, H. (2006). Chemosensory event-related potentials during sleep—A pilot study. Neuroscience Letters, 406, 222-226.
 Goel, N., & Lao, R. P. (2006). Sleep changes vary by odor perception in young adults. Biological Psychology, 71, 341-349.
 Harada, T. (2008). Diurnal rhythm and sleep habit of Japanese infants, school children and university students-focusing on life environmental factors including factors related to 24 hrs commercialization society. Chronobiology, 14, 36-43 (In Japanese).
 Harada, T., Hirotani, M., Maeda, M., Nomura, H., & Takeuchi, H. (2007). Correlation between breakfast tryptophan content and morningness-eveningness in Japanese infants and students aged 0 - 15 yrs. Journal of Physiological Anthropology, 26, 201-207.
 Harada, T., Inoue, M., Takeuchi, H., Watanabe, N., Hamada, M., Kadota, G., & Yamashita, Y. (1998). Study on diurnal rhythms in the life of Japanese university, junior high and elementary school students including morningness-eveningness preference. Bulletin of the Faculty of Education, Kochi University Series 1, 56, 1-91 (in Japanese). doi:10.1111/j.1479-8425.2003.00076.x
 Harada, T., Kadowaki, A., Shinomiya, H., & Takeuchi, H. (2004). Relationship between watching late night TV and morningness-eveningness of 18 - 22-year old Japanese students. Sleep and Biological Rhythms, 2, 97-98. doi:10.2114/jpa2.26.201
 Harada, T., Morikuni, M., Yoshii, S., Yamashita.Y., & Takeuchi, H. (2002). Usage of a mobile phone in the evening or at night makes Japanese students evening-typed and night sleep uncomfortable. Sleep and Hypnosis, 4, 150-154.
 Harada, T., Tanoue, A., & Takeuchi, H. (2006). Epidemiological studies on dream, sleep habits,mental symptoms in Japanese students aged 18 - 25 y and 24 h commercialization of Japan society. Sleep and Biological Rhythms, 4, 274-281.
 Horne, J. A. & Ostberg, O. (1976). A self assessment questionnaire to determine morningness-eveningness in human circadian rhythm. Chronobiology International, 4, 97-110.
 Kato, T., Ishihara, S., & Oki, M. (2010). Consciousness and behavior of make-up and their relationship to psychological health of Japanese women university students. Science Research on Living, 32, 81-89.
 Komori, T., Tanida, M., Kikuchi, A., Shoji, K., Nakamura, S., Nomura, J. (1997). Effects of odorant inhalation on pentobarbital-induced sleep time in rats. Human Psychopharmacology, 12, 601-602.
 Krejci, M., Wada, K., Nakade, M., Takeuchi, H., Noji, T., & Harada, T. (2011). Effects of videogame playing on the circadian typology and mental health of young Czech and Japanese children. Psychology, 2, 674-680. doi:10.4236/psych.2011.27103
 Nagai, K. (2007). Mechanism of effects of two kinds of scents, one that makes humans obese and another that reduces weight—The importance of the circadian clock. Aroma Research, 3 (in Japanese).
 Nakade, M., Takeuchi, H., Taniwaki, N., Noji, T., & Harada, T. (2009). An integrated effect ofprotein intake at breakfast and morning exposure to sunlight on the circadian typology in Japanese infants aged 2 - 6 years. Journal of PhysiologicalAnthropology, 28, 239-245.
 Ohmori, A., Shinomiya, K., Utsu, Y., Tokunaga, S., Hasegawa, Y., & Kamei, C. (2007). Effect of santalol on the sleep-wake cycle in sleep-disturbed rats. Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi, 4, 167-171 (in Japanese with English Abstract).
 Shinomiya, H., Takeuchi, H., Martoni, M., Natale, V., & Harada, T. (2004). Comparative study on circadian typology of Japanese and Italian students aged 12 - 18 years. Sleep and Biological Rhythms, 2, 93-95. doi:10.1111/j.1479-8425.2003.00075.x
 Takeuchi, H., Inoue, M., Watanabe, N., Yamashita. Y., Hamada, M., Kadota, G., & Harada, T. (2001). Parental enforcement of bedtime during childhood results in Japanese junior high school students preferring morningness to eveningness. Chronobiology International, 18, 823-829. doi:10.1081/CBI-100107517
 Takeuchi, H., Oishi, T., & Harada, T. (2003). Morningness-eveningness preference, and mental and physical symptoms during the menstrual cycle of Japanese junior high school students. Sleep and Biological Rhythms, 1, 245-247. doi:10.1046/j.1446-9235.2003.00042.x
 Torsvall, M. D., & Akerstedt, T. A. (1980). A diurnal type scale: Construction, consistency and validation in shift work. Scandinavian Journal of Work & Environmental Health, 6, 283-290.
 Wada, K., Krejci, M., Ohira, Y., Nakade, M., Takeuchi, H., & Harada, T. (2009). Comparativestudy on circadian typology and sleep habits of Japanese and Czech infants aged 0 - 8years. Sleep and Biological Rhythms, 7, 218-221.