PSYCH  Vol.4 No.3 , March 2013
Schedule of Growing Skills II: Pilot Study of an Alternative Scoring Method
ABSTRACT
The accurate early identification of developmental delay in young children is important. The aim of this study was to highlight and propose a solution to problems associated with scoring a UK developmental screening tool known as the Schedule of Growing Skills II. Potential problems associated with the sensitivity of this screening tool were identified. As a possible solution to this problem, an alternative scoring method was developed to yield a developmental quotient. A pilot investigation of the new scoring method was conducted through comparisons with the Griffiths Mental Development Scales. Forty-three children aged 0 - 5 years were recruited and administered both developmental assessments. Results from both assessments were compared to examine validity. Both the new and published scoring methods showed good concurrent validity, however the new scoring method demonstrated better criterion-related validity in terms of higher sensitivity, comparable specificity, generally higher over-referrals, and lower under-referrals. The Schedule of Growing Skills II could be a valid, cost-effective way of screening for developmental delay in young children using this new, more sensitive scoring method.

Cite this paper
Williams, M. , Hutchings, J. , Bywater, T. , Daley, D. & Whitaker, C. (2013). Schedule of Growing Skills II: Pilot Study of an Alternative Scoring Method. Psychology, 4, 143-152. doi: 10.4236/psych.2013.43021.
References
[1]   Allen, G. (2011). Early intervention: The next steps. An independent report to Her Majesty’s government. London: HM Government.

[2]   Allen, G., & Duncan-Smith, I. (2009). Early intervention: Good parents, great kids, better citizens. London: The Smith Institute and the Centre for Social Justice.

[3]   Altman, D. G. & Bland, J. M. (1983). Measurement in medicine: The analysis of method comparison studies. The Statistician, 32, 307-317. doi:10.2307/2987937

[4]   Altman, D. G. (1991). Practical statistics for medical research. London: Chapman and Hall.

[5]   American Academy of Pediatrics [AAP], Council on Children with Disabilities, Section on Developmental Behavioural Pediatrics, Bright Futures Steering Committee, Medical Home Initiatives for Children With Special Needs Project Advisory Committee (2006). Identifying infants and young children with developmental disorders in the medical home: An algorithm for developmental surveillance and screening. Pediatrics, 118, 405-420. doi:10.1542/peds.2006-1231

[6]   Anderson, L. M., Shinn, C., Fullilove, M., Scrimshaw, S. C., Fielding, J. E., Normand, J. et al. (2003). The effectiveness of early childhood developmental programs: A systematic review. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 24, 32-46. doi:10.1016/S0749-3797(02)00655-4

[7]   Bachmann, L. M., Puhan, M. A., ter Riet, G., & Bossuyt, P. M. (2006). Sample sizes of studies on diagnostic accuracy: Literature survey. British Medical Journal, 332, 1127-1129. doi:10.1136/bmj.38793.637789.2F

[8]   Barnett, W. S., & Escobar, C. M. (1990). Economic costs and benefits of early intervention. In S. J. Meisels & J. P. Shonkoff (Eds.), Handbook of early childhood intervention. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[9]   Bayley, N. (1969). Bayley scales of infant development. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.

[10]   Bellman, M. H., Lingam, S., & Aukett, A. (1996). Schedule of growing skills II: Reference manual. London: NFER Nelson.

[11]   Bellman, M. H., Lingam, S., & Aukett, A. (2008). Schedule of growing skills II: User’s guide (2nd ed.). London: NFER Nelson Publishing Company Ltd.

[12]   Bellman, M. H., Rawson, N. B., Wadsworth, J., Ross, E., Cameron, S., & Miller, D. L. (1985). A developmental test based on the STYCAR sequences used in the national childhood encephalopathy study. Child: Care, Health & Development, 11, 309-323. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2214.1985.tb00472.x

[13]   Bland, J. M. & Altman, D. G. (1986). Statistical methods for assessing agreement between two methods of clinical measurement. Lancet, 1, 307-310. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(86)90837-8

[14]   Boyd, R. (1989). What a difference a day makes: Age-related discontinuities and the Battelle Developmental Inventory. Journal of Early Intervention, 13, 114-119. doi:10.1177/105381518901300202

[15]   Camilli, G., Vargas, S., Ryan, S., & Barnett, W. S. (2010). Meta-analysis of the effects of early education interventions on cognitive and social development. Teachers College Record, 112, 579-620.

[16]   Campbell, F. A., & Ramey, C. T. (1994). Effects of early intervention on intellectual and academic achievement: A follow-up study of children from low-income families. Child Development, 65, 684-698. doi:10.2307/1131410

[17]   Department of Health (2009). Healthy child programme—Pregnancy and the first five years. URL (last checked October 2009). http://www.dh.gov.uk/publicationsandstatistics/Publications/Publi cationsPolicyAndGuidance/DH_107563

[18]   Dixon, G., Badawi, N., French, D., & Kurinczuk, J. J. (2009). Can parents accurately screen children at risk of developmental delay? Journal of Pediatrics and Child Health, 45, 268-273. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1754.2009.01492.x

[19]   Field, F. (2010). The foundation years: Preventing poor children be coming poor adults. The report of the independent review on Poverty and Life Chances. London: HM Government

[20]   Frankenburg, W. K., Fandal, A. W., Sciarillo, W., & Burgess, D. (1981). The newly abbreviated and revised Denver Developmental Screening Test. Journal of Pediatrics, 99, 995-999. doi:10.1016/S0022-3476(81)80041-8

[21]   Gesell, A. & Amatruda, C. S. (1947). Developmental diagnosis. New York: Hoeber.

[22]   Glascoe, F. P. (1997). Parents’ evaluations of developmental status. Nashville, TN: Ellsworth and Vandermeer Press.

[23]   Glascoe, F. P. (2000). Evidence-based approach to developmental and behavioural surveillance using parents’ concerns. Child: Care, Health and Development, 26, 137-149. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2214.2000.00173.x

[24]   Glascoe, F. P. (2001). Are over-referrals on developmental screening tests really a problem? Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 155, 54-59.

[25]   Glascoe, F. P. (2005). Screening for developmental and behavioural problems. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 11, 173-179. doi:10.1002/mrdd.20068

[26]   Gollenberg, A. L., Lynch, C. D., Jackson, L. W., McGuinness, B. M., & Msall, M. E. (2010). Concurrent validity of the parent-completed Ages and Stages Questionnaire, 2nd Ed. with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II in a low-risk sample. Child: Care, Health, and Development, 36, 485-490. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2214.2009.01041.x

[27]   Griffiths, R. (1954). The abilities of babies: A study in mental measurement. London: University of London Press.

[28]   Griffiths, R. (1970). The abilities of young children: A comprehensive system of mental measurement for the first eight years of life. London: Child Development Research Centre.

[29]   Hall, D. & Elliman, D. (2006). Health for all children (4th ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[30]   Hamilton, S. (2006). Screening for developmental delay: Reliable, easy-to-use tools. Journal of Family Practice, 55, 415-422.

[31]   Huntley, M. (1996). The griffiths mental development scales from birth to two years: Manual. Amersham: Association for Research in Infant and Child Development (ARICD).

[32]   Liao, H., Wang, T., Yao, G., & Lee, W. (2005). Concurrent validity of the Comprehensive Developmental Inventory for Infants and Toddlers with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II in preterm infants. Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, 104, 731-737.

[33]   Luiz, D. M., Barnard, A., Knoesen, N. P., Kotras, N., Horrocks, S., McAlinden, P., O’Connell, R. et al. (2006). Administration manual of the GMDS-ER. Amersham: Association for Research in Infant and Child Development (ARICD).

[34]   MacDonald, L. A. B., & Rennie, A. C. (2011). Investigating developmental delay/impairment. Paediatrics and Child Health, 21, 443-447. doi:10.1016/j.paed.2011.02.008

[35]   Mackrides, P. S., & Ryherd, S. J. (2011). Screening for developmental delay. American Family Physician, 84, 544-549.

[36]   Meisels, S. (1988). Developmental screening in early childhood: The interaction of research and social policy. Annual Review of Public Health, 9, 527-550. doi:10.1146/annurev.pu.09.050188.002523

[37]   Meisels, S. J., Henderson, L. W., Liaw, F., Browning, K., & Have, T. T. (1993). New evidence for the effectiveness of the early screening inventory. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 8, 327-346. doi:10.1016/S0885-2006(05)80071-7

[38]   National Statistics (2012). Pupils with statements of Special Educational Needs (SEN) in wales, first release. SDR 88/2012. Issued by Knowledge and Analytical Services, Welsh Government. URL (last checked 26 January 2013). http://wales.gov.uk/docs/statistics/2012/120613sdr882012en.pdf

[39]   Newborg, J., Stock, J. R., Wnek, L., Guidubaldi, J., & Svinicki, J. (1984). Battelle developmental inventory: Examiner’s manual. Allen, TX: DLMLINC Associates.

[40]   Regalado, M., & Halfon, N. (2001). Primary care services promoting optimal child development from birth to age 3 years. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 155, 1311-1322.

[41]   Reynolds, A. J., Temple, J., Robertson, D. L., & Mann, E. A. (2001). Long-term effects of an early childhood intervention on educational achievement and juvenile arrest. Journal of the American Medical Association, 285, 2339-2346. doi:10.1001/jama.285.18.2339

[42]   Sheridan, M. D. (1975). Children’s developmental progress from birth to five years: The Stycar sequences (3rd ed.). Windsor: NFER Publishing Company Ltd.

[43]   Sices, L., Stancin, T., Kirchner, L., & Bauchner, H. (2009). PEDS and ASQ developmental screening tests may not identify the same children. Pediatrics, 124, e640-e647. doi:10.1542/peds.2008-2628

[44]   Sonnander, K. (2000). Early identification of children with developmental disabilities. Acta Paediatrica, 89, 17-23. doi:10.1111/j.1651-2227.2000.tb03091.x

[45]   Squires, J., Bricker, D., & Potter, L. (1997). Revision of a parent-completed developmental screening tool: Ages and stages questionnaires. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 22, 313-328. doi:10.1093/jpepsy/22.3.313

[46]   Squires, J., Bricker, D., Heo, K., & Twombly, E. (2001). Identification of social-emotional problems in young children using a parent-completed screening measure. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 16, 405-419. doi:10.1016/S0885-2006(01)00115-6

[47]   Squires, J., Potter, L., & Bricker, D. (1999). The ages and stages user’s guide. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.

[48]   Tickell, C. (2011). The early years: Foundations for life, health and learning. An Independent Report on the Early Years Foundation Stage to Her Majesty’s Government. URL (last checked 22 June 2011). http://www.education,gov.uk/tickellreview

[49]   Welsh Assembly Government (2009). Flying Start Guidance 2009-2010. URL (last checked 6 June 2011). http://www.wales.gov.uk/topics/childrenyoungpeople/publications/guidance0910/?lang=en

 
 
Top