WHO (2009) World Health Organization guidelines for the management of postpartum hemorrhage and retained placenta. World Health Organization, Geneva.
http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2009/9789241598514_eng.pdf Accessed 30/11/2012
 Deneux-Tharaux, C., Macfarlane, A., Winter, C., Zhang, W.H., Alexander, S., Bouvier-Colle, M.H. and Euphrates Group (2009) Policies for manual removal of placenta at vaginal delivery: Variations in timing within Europe. BJOG, 116, 119-24.
 National Collaborating Centre for Women’s and Children’s Health (NCCWCH) (2007) Intrapartum care, care of healthy women and their babies. NICE Clinical Guidelines.
 Weeks, A.D., (2008) The retained placenta. Best Practice & Research Clinical Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 22, 1103-1117. doi:10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2008.07.005
 Obajimi, G.O., Roberts, A.O., Aimakhu, C.O., Bello, F.A. and Olayemi, O. (2009) An appraisal of retained placentae in Ibadan: A five year review. Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine, 7, 21-25.
 Etuk, S.J. and Asuquo, E.E. (1997) Maternal mortality following post-partum hemorrhages in calabar a 6-year review. West African Journal of Medicine, 16, 165-169.
 Eifediyi, R.A., Eigbefoh, J.O., Isabu, P.A., Omorogbe, F.I., Ukponmwan, O.G. and Momoh, M. (2011) Retained placenta: Still a cause of maternal morbidity and mortality in a Nigerian semi-urban population. Sudan Journal of Medical Sciences, 6, 33-38
 Soltan, M.H. and Khashoggi, T. (1997) Retained placenta and associated Risk Factors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 17, 245-247.
 Daftary, S.N. and Nanawati, M.S. (1996) Management of postpartum hemorrhage. In: Buckshee, K., Patwardhan, V.B. and Soonawala, R.P., Eds., Principles and Practice of Obstetrics and Gynecology for Postgraduates. FOGSI Publication, Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers, New Delhi.
 Kamani, A.A., McMorland, G.H. and Wadsworth, L.D., (1988) Utilization of red blood cell transfusion in an obstetric setting. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 159, 1177-1181.
 International Confederation of Midwives, International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (2004) Joint statement: Management of the third stage of labour to prevent post-partum hemorrhage. Journal of Midwifery & Women’s Health, 41, 76-77.
 World Health Organization (2003) Managing complications in pregnancy and childbirth. World Health Organization, Geneva.
http://www.searo.who.int/LinkFiles/Making_Pregnancy_Safer_MCPC.pdf Accessed 30 Nov 2012.
 Winter, C., Macfarlane, A., Deneux-Tharaux, C., Zhang, W.H., Alexander, S., Brocklehurst, P., et al. (2007) Variations in policies for managing of postpartum hemorrhage in Europe. BJOG, 114, 845-854.
 Titiz, H., Wallace, A. and Voaklander, D.C., (2001) Manual removal of the placenta—A case control study. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics, 41, 41- 44. doi:10.1111/j.1479-828X.2001.tb01292.x
 Prendiville, W.J., Elbourne, D. and McDonald, S. (2009) Active versus expectant Management of the third stage of labor. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 8, CD- 000007.
 Ng, P.S., Chan, A.S.M., Sin, W.K., Tang, L.C.H., Cheung, K.B. and Yeun, P.M. (2001) A Multicenter randomized controlled trial of oral misoprostol in the management of the third stage of labor. Human Reproduction, 16, 31-35. doi:10.1093/humrep/16.1.31
 Pigingas, A., Hofmeyr, G.J. and Sesel, K.R., (1993) Umbilical Vessel Oxytocin Administration for retained placenta: In-vitro study of various infusion techniques. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 168, 793- 795.
 Lim, P.S., Singh, S., Lee, A. and Muhammad Yassin, M.A. (2011) Umbilical vein oxytocin in the management of retained placenta: An alternative to manual removal of placenta? Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 284, 1073-1079. doi:10.1007/s00404-010-1785-6
 Thomas, W.O. (1993) Manual of removal of placenta. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 86, 600- 606.
 Setubai, A., Clode, N., Bruno-Palva, J.L., Roncon, I. and Graca, L.M. (1999) Vesico uterine fistula after manual removal of placenta in a woman with previous cesarean section. The European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 84, 75-76.
 Oshodi, Y.A., Akinola, O.I., Fabamwo, A.O., Oludara, B., Akinola, R.A. and Adebayo, S.K. (2012) Ruptured uterus and bowel injury from manual removal of placenta: A case report. Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal, 19, 181-183.
 Leduc, D., Senikas, V., Lalonde, A.B., Ballerman, C., Biringer, A., et al., Clinical Practice Obstetrics Committee; Society of Obstetricians and Gynecologists of Canada (2009) Active management of the third stage of labor: Prevention and treatment of postpartum hemorrhage. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada, 31, 980- 993.
 Owolabi, A.T., Dare, F.O., Fasuba, O.B. Ogunlola, I.O., Kuti, O. and Bisiriyu, L.A. (2008) Risk factors for retained placenta in Southwestern Nigeria. Singapore Medical Journal, 49, 532-537.