FNS  Vol.4 No.3 , March 2013
Food Hygiene Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of the Food Handlers in the Military Hospitals
Abstract: Improper practices and lack of knowledge by food handlers are contributing factors for the spread of foodborne outbreaks. This study aimed to explore the knowledge, attitude and practice of food handlers in military hospitals in Jordan. A Self completed questionnaire was answered by 200 employees; 150 military employees and 50 civilian employees in 7 Jordanian military hospitals selected randomly one from the capital Amman and two from the three provinces. The results showed that the means of the percentage scores for the knowledge, attitude, practice, were 84.82, 88.88, 89.43, respectively and the overall knowledge, attitude, practice (KAP) mean percentage score was 87.88. A significant difference (P < 0.05) in these values was observed between the military and civilian employee. The mean percentage scores for knowledge, attitude and practice were 88.5, 93.2, and 91.4, respectively for military employee compared to those for civilian employee of 73.7, 75.8, and 83.5, respectively. A significant difference for the overall (KAP) mean percentage score was also observed between gender, education and specific occupation of the food handler. Female KAP percentage mean score was 90.0 and that for males was 86.6; The college or university educations employee had a mean score of 91.6 while the elementary school education employee had a mean score of 79.7; The nutritionists and cooks had statistically similar means of 91.6 but these occupations significantly differ from the waiters 84.4 and cleaners 80.2.
Cite this paper: L. Sharif, M. Obaidat and M. Al-Dalalah, "Food Hygiene Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of the Food Handlers in the Military Hospitals," Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 3, 2013, pp. 245-251. doi: 10.4236/fns.2013.43033.

[1]   M. R. Adams and M. O. Moss, “Food Microbiology,” 3rd Edition, The Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, 2008.

[2]   E. C. Todd, J. D. Greig, C. A. Bartleson and B. S. Michaels, “Outbreaks Where Food Workers Have Been Implicated in the Spread of Foodborne Disease,” Part 3. Factors Contributing to Outbreaks and Description of Outbreak Categories,” Journal of Food Protection, Vol. 70, No. 9, 2007, pp. 2199-2217.

[3]   M. Bas, A. Ersun and G. K?van?, “The Evaluation of Food Hygiene Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of Food Handlers’ in Food Businesses in Turkey,” Food Control, Vol. 17, No. 4, 2006, pp. 317-322. doi:10.1016/j.foodcont.2004.11.006

[4]   A. D. Howells, K. R. Roberts, C. W. Shanklin, V. K. Pilling, L. A. Brannon and B. B. Barrett, “Restaurant Employees’ Perceptions of Barriers to Three Food Safety Practices,” Journal of the American Dietetic Association, Vol. 108, No. 8, 2008, pp. 1345-1349. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2008.05.010

[5]   S. S. Lilian, C. C. Rogeria, S. C. Ellayne, S. C. Joelza and L. N. Itaciara, “Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices in Food Safety and the Presence of Coagulase-Positive Staphylococci on Hands of Food Handlers in the Schools of Cama?ari, Brazil,” Food Control, Vol. 27, No. 1, 2012, pp. 206-213. doi:10.1016/j.foodcont.2012.03.016

[6]   A. S. Pragle, A. K. Harding and J. C. Mack, “Food Workers’ Perspectives on Hand Washing Behaviors and Barriers in the Restaurant Environment,” Journal of Environmental Health, Vol. 69, No. 10, 2007, pp. 27-32.

[7]   L. Sharif, and T. Al-Malki, “Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Taif University Students on Food Poisoning,” Food Control, Vol. 21, No. 1, 2010, pp. 55-60. doi:10.1016/j.foodcont.2009.03.015

[8]   N. Unklesbay, J. Sneed and R. Toma, “College Students’ Attitudes, Practices, and Knowledge of Food Safety,” Journal of Food Protection, Vol. 61, No. 9, 1998, pp. 1175-1180.

[9]   C. Buccheri, A. Casuccio, S. Giammanco, M. Giammanco, M. La Guardia and C. Mammina, “Food Safety in Hospital: Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Nursing Staff of Two Hospitals in Sicily, Italy,” BMC Health Service Research, Vol. 7, No. 45, 2007, pp. 1-11. doi:10.1186/1472-6963-7-45

[10]   H. El Derea, E. Salem, M. Fawzi and M. A. Azeem, “Safety of Patient Meals in 2 Hospitals in Alexandria, Egypt before and after Training of Food Handlers,” East Mediterranean Health Journal, Vol. 14, No. 4, 2008, pp. 941-952.

[11]   S. O. Nee and A. S. Norrakiah, “Assessment of Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) among Food Handlers at Residential Colleges and Canteen Regarding Food Safety,” Sains Malaysiana, Vol. 40, No. 4, 2011, pp. 403-410.

[12]   M. J. Santos, J. R Nogueira, L. Patarata and O. Mayan, “Knowledge Levels of Food Handlers in Portuguese School Canteens and Their Self-Reported Behavior towards Food Safety,” International Journal of Environmental Health Research, Vol. 18, No. 6, 2008, pp. 387401. doi:10.1080/09603120802100212

[13]   M. Marais, N. Conradie and D. Labadarios, “Small and Micro Enterprises—Aspects of Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Managers’ Hospital, Western Cape,” South African Journal Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 20, No. 2, 2007, pp. 50-61.

[14]   F. P. ?akiroglu and A. U?ar, “Employees’ Perception of Hygiene in the Catering Industry in Ankara (Turkey),” Food Control, Vol. 19, No. 1, 2008, pp. 9-15. doi:10.1016/j.foodcont.2007.01.001

[15]   E. Gomes-Neves, A. C. Araújo, E. Ramos and C. S. Cardoso, “Food Handling: Comparative Analysis of General Knowledge and Practice in Three Relevant Groups in Portugal,” Food Control, Vol. 18, No. 6, 2007, pp. 707-712. doi:10.1016/j.foodcont.2006.03.005

[16]   M. Jev?nik, V. Hlebec and P. Raspor, “Food Safety Knowledge and 553 Practices among Food Handlers in Slovenia,” Food Control, Vol. 19, No. 12, 2008, pp. 1107-1111. doi:10.1016/j.foodcont.2007.11.010

[17]   R. B. Martins, T. Hogg and J. G. Otero, “Food Handlers’ Knowledge on Food Hygiene: The Case of a Catering Company in Portugal,” Food Control, Vol. 23, No. 1, 2012, pp. 184-190. doi:10.1016/j.foodcont.2011.07.008

[18]   E. Walker, C. Pritchard and S. Forsythe, “Food Handlers’ Hygiene Knowledge in Small Food Businesses,” Food Control, Vol. 14, No. 5, 2003, pp. 339-343. doi:10.1016/S0956-7135(02)00101-9

[19]   B. J. McCabe-Sellers and S. E. Beattie, “Food Safety: Emerging Trends in Food Borne Illness Surveillance and Prevention,” Journal of the American Dietetic Association, Vol. 104, No. 11, 2004, pp. 1708-1717. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2004.08.028

[20]   D. A. Clayton, C. J. Griffith, P. Price and A. C. Peters, “Food Handlers’ Beliefs and Self-Reported Practices,” International Journal of Environmental Health Research, Vol. 12, No. 1, 2002, pp. 25-29. doi:10.1080/09603120120110031

[21]   L. Green, C. Selman, V. Radke, D. Ripley, J. Mack, D. Reimann, T. Stigger, M. Motsinger and L. Bushnell, “Food Worker Hand Washing Practices: An Observational Study,” Journal of Food Protection, Vol. 69, No. 10, 2006, pp. 2417-2423.

[22]   P. Coleman, C. Griffith and D. Botterill, “Welsh Caterers: An Exploratory Study of Attitudes towards Safe Food Handling in the Hospitality Industry,” International Journal of Hospitality Management, Vol. 19, No. 2, 2000, pp. 145-157. doi:10.1016/S0278-4319(00)00010-4

[23]   J. E. Ehiri, G. P. Morris and J. McEwen, “Evaluation of a food hygiene training course in Scotland,” Food Control, Vol. 8, No. 3, 1997, pp. 137-147. doi:10.1016/S0956-7135(97)00005-4

[24]   M. D. Rennie, “Health Education Models and Food Hygiene Education,” Perspectives in Public Health, Vol. 115, No. 2, 1995, pp. 75-79. doi:10.1177/146642409511500203

[25]   D. J. Bolton, A. Meally, I. S. Blair, D. A. McDowell and C. Cowan, “Food Safety Knowledge of Head Chefs and Catering Managers in Ireland,” Food Control, Vol. 19, No. 3, 2008, pp. 291-300. doi:10.1016/j.foodcont.2007.04.006

[26]   M. Pirsaheb, A. Almasi and M. Rezaee, “The Special Health Education Course Effects on Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Preparation, Distribution and Sale Centers Food Staff in Kermanshah,” Iranian Journal of Health and Environment, Vol. 3, No. 3, 2010, pp. 299-308.

[27]   L. McIntyre, L. Vallaster, L. Wilcott, S. B. Henderson and T. Kosatsky, “Evaluation of Food Safety Knowledge, Attitudes and Self-Reported Hand Washing Practices in FOODSAFE Trained and Untrained Food Handlers in British Columbia, Canada,” Food Control, Vol. 30, No. 1, 2012, pp. 150-156. doi:10.1016/j.foodcont.2012.06.034