An increased content of low molecular weight(LMW)- HA was found in human gingiva during the initial phase of periodontitis. A number of functions have been described for LMW-HA in inflammatory processes. It is also demonstrated that LMWHA induces apoptosis in chondrocytes and tumor cells, however, effects of LMWHA on the apoptosis of gingival fibroblasts (GFs) remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of HA oligosaccharides (HAoligo) on the apoptosis of GFs. GFs were isolated from palatal gingival tissuesaround the upper first premolars ofeight youth (6-10 years old) and eight adult (26-35 years old) subjects. Cultured GFs were subjected to the analyses, ELISA for cell proliferation, quantitative real time-PCR for gene expression of Bcl-2, and caspase-3 assay for apoptotic potency. Proliferative activity of cultured GFs was increased significantly
Cite this paper
Tanne, Y. , Tanimoto, K. , Okuma, S. , Kunimatsu, R. , Hirose, N. , Mitsuyoshi, T. and Tanne, K. (2013) Effects of hyaluronan oligosaccharides on apoptosis ofhuman gingival fibroblasts. Open Journal of Stomatology, 3, 19-24. doi: 10.4236/ojst.2013.31004.
 Laurent, T.C. and Fraser, J.R. (1992) Hyaluronan. The FASEB Journal, 6, 2397-2404.%%%Knudson, C.B. and Knudson, W. (1993). Hyaluronan-binding proteins in development, tissue homeostasis, and disease. The FASEB Journal, 7, 1233-1241.%%%Yamalik, N., Caglayan, F., Kilinc, K., Kilinc, A. and Tumer, C. (2000) The importance of data presentation regarding gingival crevicular fluid myeloperoxidase and elastase-like activity in periodontal disease and health status. Journal of Periodontology, 71, 460-467. doi:10.1902/jop.2000.71.3.460%%%Bartold, P.M. and Page, R.C. (1986) Hyaluronic acid synthesized by fibroblasts cultured from normal and chronically inflamed human gingivae. Collagen and Related Research, 6, 365. doi:10.1016/S0174-173X(86)80006-1%%%McKee, C.M., Penno, M.B., Cowman, M., Burdick, M.D., Strieter, R.M., Bao, C. and Noble, P.W. (1996) Hyaluronan (HA) fragments induce chemokine gene expression in alveolar macrophages. The role of HA size and CD44. The Journal of Clinical Investigation, 98, 2403-2413. doi:10.1172/JCI119054%%%Oertli, B., Beck-Schimmer, B., Fan, X. and Wuthrich, R.P. (1998) Mechanisms of hyaluronan-induced up-regulation of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression by murine kidney tubular epithelial cells: Hyaluronan triggers cell adhesion molecule expression through a mechanism involving activation of nuclear factor-kB and activating protein-1. The Journal of Immunology, 161, 3431-3437.%%%Nakatani, Y., Tanimoto, K., Tanaka, N., Tanne, Y., Kamiya, T., Kunimatsu, R., Tanaka, E. and Tanne, K. (2009) Effects of hyaluronan oligosaccharide on the expression of MMP-1 in periodontal ligament cells. Archives of Oral Biology, 54, 757-763. doi:10.1016/j.archoralbio.2009.05.005%%%Gamonal, J., Bascones, A., Acevedo, A., Blanco, E. and Silva, A. (2001) Apoptosis in chronic adult periodontitis analyzed by in situ DNA breaks, electron microscopy, and immunohistochemistry. Journal of Periodontology, 72, 517-525. doi:10.1902/jop.2001.72.4.517%%%Sorkin, B.C. and Niederman, R. (1998) Short chain carboxylic acids decrease human gingival keratinocyte proliferation and increase apoptosis and necrosis. Journal of Clinical Periodontology, 25, 311-315. doi:10.1111/j.1600-051X.1998.tb02446.x%%%Cohen, J.J. (1991) Programmed cell death in the immune system. Advances in Immunology, 50, 55. doi:10.1016/S0065-2776(08)60822-6%%%Kluck, R.M., Bossy-Wetzel, E., Green, D.R. and Newmeyer, D.D. (1997) The release of cytochrome c from mitochondria: A primary site for Bcl-2 regulation of apoptosis. Science, 275, 1132. doi:10.1126/science.275.5303.1132%%%Susin, S.A., Lorenzo, H.K., Zamzami, N., Marzo, I., Snow, B.E., Brothers, G.M., Mangion, J., Jacotot, E., Costantini, P. and Loeffler, M. (1999) Molecular characterization of mitochondrial apoptosis-inducing factor. Nature, 397, 441-446. doi:10.1038/17135%%%Martinou, J.C., Desagher, S. and Antonsson, B. (2000) Cytochrome c release from mitochondria: All or nothing. Nature Cell Biology, 2, 41-42. doi:10.1038/35004069%%%Nunez, G., Benedict, M.A., Hu, Y. and Inohara, N. (1998) Caspases: The proteases of the apoptotic pathway. Oncogene, 17, 3237. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1202581%%%Tsujimoto, Y. and Shimizu, S. (2000) Bcl-2 family: Life-or-death switch. FEBS Letters, 466, 6-10. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(99)01761-5%%%Watanabe, Y., Yamamoto, K., Kono, R. and Nunoda, D. (2006) Effects of intraarticular injection of hyaluronic acid in a rabbit osteoarthritis model. Journal of Tokyo Medical University, 64, 332.%%%Ghatak, S., Misra, S. and Toole, B.P. (2002) Hyaluronan oligosaccharides inhibit anchorage-independent growth of tumor cells by suppressing the phosphoinositide 3- kinase/Akt cell survival pathway. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 277, 38013-38020. doi:10.1074/jbc.M202404200%%%Underhill, C.B. and Toole, B.P. (1979) Binding of hyaluronate to the surface of cultured cells. The Journal of Cell Biology, 82, 475-484. doi:10.1083/jcb.82.2.475%%%Bartold, P.M., Boyd, R.R. and Page, R.C. (1986) Proteoglycans synthesized by ging