Impact of Field Strength and Respiratory Motion Control on Diffusion-Weighted MR Imaging of the Liver

Affiliation(s)

Sk?ne University Hospital, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malm?, Sweden.

Medical Radiation Physics, Lund University, Malm?, Sweden.

Medical Radiology, Lund University, Malm?, Sweden.

Sk?ne University Hospital, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malm?, Sweden.

Medical Radiation Physics, Lund University, Malm?, Sweden.

Medical Radiology, Lund University, Malm?, Sweden.

ABSTRACT

**Purpose****:** To evaluate the impact of field strength and respiratory motion control on diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) of the liver at 1.5 and 3 T. **Material and Methods:** Three DWI sequences using seven *b*-values from 20 - 400 s/mm^{2} were designed with identical parameters but with different handling of respiratory motion [respiratory triggered (RT), free breathing (FB), breath hold (BH)] on 3 T and 1.5 T. Thirteen volunteers were examined at a 3 T and six of them also at a 1.5 T magnet. DW images were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. Regions of interest were placed in cranial, middle and caudal parts of the right liver lobe (RLL) and ADC and SNR were calculated. **Results:** ADC in RLL tended to be lower at 3 T MRI. Least inter-subject ADC variability was found with RT in the middle RLL at 3 T. Highest ADCs were found caudally in the RLL. Significant differences in ADC between middle and caudal RLL were calculated in FB and RT at 3 T and FB and BH at 1.5 T, respectively. No significant difference in SNR was found between 3 T and 1.5 T. There were significantly more artifacts in the left liver lobe (LLL) compared to the RLL in all sequences and in the LLL at 3 T compared to 1.5 T. **Conclusion:** Our study suggests that longitudinal hepatic ADC measurements should be performed using equivalent field strength, *b*-values, and acquisition technique, given influence of these factors on ADC measurements.

Cite this paper

J. Berg, S. Månsson, J. Svensson, O. Ekberg and M. Müller, "Impact of Field Strength and Respiratory Motion Control on Diffusion-Weighted MR Imaging of the Liver,"*Open Journal of Medical Imaging*, Vol. 3 No. 1, 2013, pp. 31-39. doi: 10.4236/ojmi.2013.31005.

J. Berg, S. Månsson, J. Svensson, O. Ekberg and M. Müller, "Impact of Field Strength and Respiratory Motion Control on Diffusion-Weighted MR Imaging of the Liver,"

References

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[13] J. Zhao, R. Krug, D. Xu, Y. Lu and T. M. Link, “MRI of the Spine: Image Quality and Normal-Neoplastic Bone Marrow Contrast at 3 T Versus 1.5 T,” American Journal of Roentgenology, Vol. 192, No. 4, 2009, pp. 873-880. doi:10.2214/AJR.08.1750

[14] S. M. Erturk, A. Alberich-Bayarri, K. A. Herrmann, L. Marti-Bonmati and P. R. Ros, “Use of 3.0-T MR Imaging for Evaluation of the Abdomen,” Radiographics, Vol. 29, No. 6, 2009, pp. 1547-1563. doi:10.1148/rg.296095516

[15] A. B. Rosenkrantz, J. M. Patel, J. S. Babb, P. Storey and E. M. Hecht, “Liver MRI at 3 T Using a RespiratoryTriggered Time-Efficient 3D T2-Weighted Technique: Impact on Artifacts and Image Quality,” American Journal of Roentgenology, Vol. 194, No. 3, 2010, pp. 634-641. doi:10.2214/AJR.09.2994

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[18] C. L. Hoad, E. F. Cox and P. A. Gowland, “Quantification of T2 in the Abdomen at 3.0 T Using a T2-Prepared Balanced Turbo Field Echo Sequence,” Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, Vol. 63, No. 2, 2010, pp. 356-364. doi:10.1002/mrm.22203

[19] T. C. Kwee, T. Takahara, T. Niwa, M. K. Ivancevic, G. Herigault, M. Van Cauteren and P. R. Luijten, “Influence of Cardiac Motion on Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Liver,” Magma, Vol. 22, No. 5, 2009, pp. 319-325. doi:10.1007/s10334-009-0183-1

[20] P. Murtz, S. Flacke, F. Traber, J. S. van den Brink, J. Gieseke and H. H. Schild, “Abdomen: Diffusion-Weighted MR Imaging with Pulse-Triggered Single-Shot Sequences,” Radiology, Vol. 224, No. 1, 2002, pp. 258-264. doi:10.1148/radiol.2241011117

[21] J. Deng, R. A. Omary and A. C. Larson, “Multishot Diffusion-Weighted Splice Propeller MRI of the Abdomen,” Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, Vol. 59, No. 5, 2008, pp. 947-953. doi:10.1002/mrm.21525

[22] H. Kandpal, R. Sharma, K. S. Madhusudhan and K. S. Kapoor, “Respiratory-Triggered versus Breath-Hold Diffusion-Weighted MRI of Liver Lesions: Comparison of Image Quality and Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Values,” American Journal of Roentgenology, Vol. 192, No. 4, 2009, pp. 915-922. doi:10.2214/AJR.08.1260

[23] V. S. Lee, E. M. Hecht, B. Taouli, Q. Chen, K. Prince and N. Oesingmann, “Body and Cardiovascular MR Imaging at 3.0 T,” Radiology, Vol. 244, No. 3, 2007, pp. 692-705. doi:10.1148/radiol.2443060582

[24] B. Taouli, A. Sandberg, A. Stemmer, T. Parikh, S. Wong, J. Xu and V. S. Lee, “Diffusion-Weighted Imaging of the Liver: Comparison of Navigator Triggered and Breathhold Acquisitions,” Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Vol. 30, No. 3, 2009, pp. 561-568. doi:10.1002/jmri.21876

[25] M. von Siebenthal, G. Szekely, U. Gamper, P. Boesiger, A. Lomax and P. Cattin, “4D MR Imaging of Respiratory Organ Motion and Its Variability,” Physics in Medicine and Biology, Vol. 52, No. 6, 2007, pp. 1547-1564. doi:10.1088/0031-9155/52/6/001

[26] K. Nasu, Y. Kuroki, H. Fujii and M. Minami, “Hepatic Pseudo-Anisotropy: A Specific Artifact in Hepatic Diffusion-Weighted Images Obtained with Respiratory Triggering,” Magma, Vol. 20, No. 4, 2007, pp. 205-211. doi:10.1007/s10334-007-0084-0

[27] S. Colagrande, F. Pasquinelli, L. N. Mazzoni, G. Belli and G. Virgili, “MR-Diffusion Weighted Imaging of Healthy Liver Parenchyma: Repeatability and Reproducibility of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Measurement,” Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Vol. 31, No. 4, 2010, pp. 912-920. doi:10.1002/jmri.22117

[1] S. H. Kim, J. M. Lee, S. H. Hong, G. H. Kim, J. Y. Lee, J. K. Han and B. I. Choi, “Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer: Added Value of Diffusion-Weighted MR Imaging in the Evaluation of Tumor Response to Neoadjuvant Chemoand Radiation Therapy,” Radiology, Vol. 253, No. 1, 2009, pp. 116-125. doi:10.1148/radiol.2532090027

[2] T. Kwee, T. Takahara, R. Ochiai, R. Nievelstein and P. Luijten, “Diffusion-Weighted Whole-Body Imaging with Background Body Signal Suppression (DWIBS): Features and Potential Applications in Oncology,” European Radiology, Vol. 18, No. 9, 2008, pp. 1937-1952. doi:10.1007/s00330-008-0968-z

[3] R. N. Low and J. Gurney, “Diffusion-Weighted MRI (DWI) in the Oncology Patient: Value of Breathhold DWI Compared to Unenhanced and Gadolinium-Enhanced MRI,” Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Vol. 25, No. 4, 2007, pp. 848-858. doi:10.1002/jmri.20864

[4] M. F. Muller, P. Prasad, B. Siewert, M. A. Nissenbaum, V. Raptopoulos and R. R. Edelman, “Abdominal Diffusion Mapping with Use of a Whole-Body Echo-Planar System,” Radiology, Vol. 190, No. 2, 1994, pp. 475-478.

[5] M. Bruegel, K. Holzapfel, J. Gaa, K. Woertler, S. Waldt, B. Kiefer, A. Stemmer, C. Ganter and E. J. Rummeny, “Characterization of Focal Liver Lesions by ADC Measurements Using a Respiratory Triggered Diffusion-Weighted Single-Shot Echo-Planar MR Imaging Technique,” European Radiology, Vol. 18, No. 3, 2008, pp. 477-485. doi:10.1007/s00330-007-0785-9

[6] S. Goshima, M. Kanematsu, H. Kondo, R. Yokoyama, K. Kajita, Y. Tsuge, H. Watanabe, Y. Shiratori, M. Onozuka and N. Moriyama, “Diffusion-Weighted Imaging of the Liver: Optimizing b Value for the Detection and Characterization of Benign and Malignant Hepatic Lesions,” Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Vol. 28, No. 3, 2008, pp. 691-697. doi:10.1002/jmri.21467

[7] T. C. Kwee, T. Takahara, D.-M. Koh, R. A. J. Nievelstein and P. R. Luijten, “Comparison and Reproducibility of ADC Measurements in Breathhold, Respiratory Triggered, and Free-Breathing Diffusion-Weighted MR Imaging of the Liver,” Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Vol. 28, No. 5, 2008, pp. 1141-1148. doi:10.1002/jmri.21569

[8] M. Lewin, A. Poujol-Robert, P. Y. Boelle, D. Wendum, E. Lasnier, M. Viallon, J. Guechot, C. Hoeffel, L. Arrive, J. M. Tubiana and R. Poupon, “Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging for the Assessment of Fibrosis in Chronic Hepatitis C,” Hepatology, Vol. 46, No. 3, 2007, pp. 658-665. doi:10.1002/hep.21747

[9] M. K. Ivancevic, T. C. Kwee, T. Takahara, T. Ogino, H. K. Hussain, P. S. Liu and T. L. Chenevert, “Diffusionweighted MR Imaging of the Liver at 3.0 Tesla Using Tracking Only Navigator Echo (TRON): A Feasibility Study,” Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Vol. 30, No. 5, 2009, pp. 1027-1033. doi:10.1002/jmri.21939

[10] A. C. Braithwaite, B. M. Dale, D. T. Boll and E. M. Merkle, “Shortand Midterm Reproducibility of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Measurements at 3.0-T Diffusion-Weighted Imaging of the Abdomen,” Radiology, Vol. 250, No. 2, 2009, pp. 459-465. doi:10.1148/radiol.2502080849

[11] B. M. Dale, A. C. Braithwaite, D. T. Boll and E. M. Merkle, “Field Strength and Diffusion Encoding Technique Affect the Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Measurements in Diffusion-Weighted Imaging of the Abdomen,” Investigative Radiology, Vol. 45, No. 2, 2010, pp. 104-108. doi:10.1097/RLI.0b013e3181c8ceac

[12] A. B. Rosenkrantz, M. Oei, J. S. Babb, B. E. Niver and B. Taouli, “Diffusion-Weighted Imaging of the Abdomen at 3.0 Tesla: Image Quality and Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Reproducibility Compared with 1.5 Tesla,” Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Vol. 33, No. 1, 2011, pp. 128-135. doi:10.1002/jmri.22395

[13] J. Zhao, R. Krug, D. Xu, Y. Lu and T. M. Link, “MRI of the Spine: Image Quality and Normal-Neoplastic Bone Marrow Contrast at 3 T Versus 1.5 T,” American Journal of Roentgenology, Vol. 192, No. 4, 2009, pp. 873-880. doi:10.2214/AJR.08.1750

[14] S. M. Erturk, A. Alberich-Bayarri, K. A. Herrmann, L. Marti-Bonmati and P. R. Ros, “Use of 3.0-T MR Imaging for Evaluation of the Abdomen,” Radiographics, Vol. 29, No. 6, 2009, pp. 1547-1563. doi:10.1148/rg.296095516

[15] A. B. Rosenkrantz, J. M. Patel, J. S. Babb, P. Storey and E. M. Hecht, “Liver MRI at 3 T Using a RespiratoryTriggered Time-Efficient 3D T2-Weighted Technique: Impact on Artifacts and Image Quality,” American Journal of Roentgenology, Vol. 194, No. 3, 2010, pp. 634-641. doi:10.2214/AJR.09.2994

[16] C. Couinaud, “Liver Anatomy: Portal (and Suprahepatic) or Biliary Segmentation,” Digestive Surgery, Vol. 16, No. 6, 1999, pp. 459-467. doi:10.1159/000018770

[17] M. A. Goldberg, P. F. Hahn, S. Saini, M. S. Cohen, P. Reimer, T. J. Brady and P. R. Mueller, “Value of T1 and T2 Relaxation Times from Echoplanar MR Imaging in the Characterization of Focal Hepatic Lesions,” American Journal of Roentgenology, Vol. 160, 1993, pp. 1011-1017.

[18] C. L. Hoad, E. F. Cox and P. A. Gowland, “Quantification of T2 in the Abdomen at 3.0 T Using a T2-Prepared Balanced Turbo Field Echo Sequence,” Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, Vol. 63, No. 2, 2010, pp. 356-364. doi:10.1002/mrm.22203

[19] T. C. Kwee, T. Takahara, T. Niwa, M. K. Ivancevic, G. Herigault, M. Van Cauteren and P. R. Luijten, “Influence of Cardiac Motion on Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Liver,” Magma, Vol. 22, No. 5, 2009, pp. 319-325. doi:10.1007/s10334-009-0183-1

[20] P. Murtz, S. Flacke, F. Traber, J. S. van den Brink, J. Gieseke and H. H. Schild, “Abdomen: Diffusion-Weighted MR Imaging with Pulse-Triggered Single-Shot Sequences,” Radiology, Vol. 224, No. 1, 2002, pp. 258-264. doi:10.1148/radiol.2241011117

[21] J. Deng, R. A. Omary and A. C. Larson, “Multishot Diffusion-Weighted Splice Propeller MRI of the Abdomen,” Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, Vol. 59, No. 5, 2008, pp. 947-953. doi:10.1002/mrm.21525

[22] H. Kandpal, R. Sharma, K. S. Madhusudhan and K. S. Kapoor, “Respiratory-Triggered versus Breath-Hold Diffusion-Weighted MRI of Liver Lesions: Comparison of Image Quality and Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Values,” American Journal of Roentgenology, Vol. 192, No. 4, 2009, pp. 915-922. doi:10.2214/AJR.08.1260

[23] V. S. Lee, E. M. Hecht, B. Taouli, Q. Chen, K. Prince and N. Oesingmann, “Body and Cardiovascular MR Imaging at 3.0 T,” Radiology, Vol. 244, No. 3, 2007, pp. 692-705. doi:10.1148/radiol.2443060582

[24] B. Taouli, A. Sandberg, A. Stemmer, T. Parikh, S. Wong, J. Xu and V. S. Lee, “Diffusion-Weighted Imaging of the Liver: Comparison of Navigator Triggered and Breathhold Acquisitions,” Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Vol. 30, No. 3, 2009, pp. 561-568. doi:10.1002/jmri.21876

[25] M. von Siebenthal, G. Szekely, U. Gamper, P. Boesiger, A. Lomax and P. Cattin, “4D MR Imaging of Respiratory Organ Motion and Its Variability,” Physics in Medicine and Biology, Vol. 52, No. 6, 2007, pp. 1547-1564. doi:10.1088/0031-9155/52/6/001

[26] K. Nasu, Y. Kuroki, H. Fujii and M. Minami, “Hepatic Pseudo-Anisotropy: A Specific Artifact in Hepatic Diffusion-Weighted Images Obtained with Respiratory Triggering,” Magma, Vol. 20, No. 4, 2007, pp. 205-211. doi:10.1007/s10334-007-0084-0

[27] S. Colagrande, F. Pasquinelli, L. N. Mazzoni, G. Belli and G. Virgili, “MR-Diffusion Weighted Imaging of Healthy Liver Parenchyma: Repeatability and Reproducibility of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Measurement,” Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Vol. 31, No. 4, 2010, pp. 912-920. doi:10.1002/jmri.22117