Children’s Defense Fund (2012). Protect children, not guns 2012. Washington, DC: Children’s Defense Fund.
 Cisler, J. M., Amstadter, A. B., & Nugent, N. R. (2011). Genetic and environmental influences on posttrauma adjustment in children and adolescents: The role of personality constructs. Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma, 4, 301-317. doi:10.1080/19361521.2011.609154
 Cloitre, M., Stovall-McClough, K. C., Nooner, K., Zorbas, P., Cherry, S., Jackson, C. L. et al. (2010). Treatment for PTSD related to childhood abuse: A randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Psychiatry, 167, 915-924. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2010.09081247
 Cohen, E., & Walthall, B. (2003). Silent realities: Supporting young children and their families who experience violence. Washington, DC: National Child Welfare Resource Center for Family-Centered Practice.
 Cook, A., Spinazzola, J., Ford, J., Lanktree, C., Blaustein, M., & Sprague, C. (2007). Complex trauma in children and adolescents. Focal Point, 21, 4-8.
 Felitti, V., Anda, R., Nordenberg, D., Williamson, D., Spitz, A., Edwards, V. et al. (1998). Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults: The adverse childhood experiences (ACE) study. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 14, 245-257.
 Finkelhor, D., Turner, H., Ormrod, R., Hamby, S., & Kracke, K. (2009). Children’s exposure to violence: A comprehensive national survey. Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
 Fletcher, K. E. (2011). Understanding and assessing traumatic responses of guilt, shame, and anger among children, adolescents, and young adults. Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma, 4, 339-360.
 Fraser, B. (2012). (World Report). Latin America looks to violence prevention for answers. The Lancet, 380 (9850), 1297-1298.
 Holt, S., Buckley, H., & Whelan, S. (2008). The impact of exposure to domestic violence on children and young people: A review of the literature. Child Abuse & Neglect, 32, 797-810.
 Jaycox, L. H., Cohen, J. A., Mannarino, A. P., Walker, D. W., Langley, A. K., Gegenheimer, K. L. et al. (2010). Children’s mental health care following hurricane Katrina: A field trial of trauma-focused psychotherapies. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 23, 223-231.
 Macdonald, C. C., & Richmond, T. R. (2008). The relationship between community violence exposure and mental health symptoms in urban adolescents. Journal of Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing, 15, 833- 849. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2850.2008.01321.x
 Klomek, A. B., Sourander, A., & Gould, M. S. (2011). Bullying and suicide: Detection and intervention. Psychiatric Times, 28. URL (last checked 4 December 2012)
 Nader, K. (2011). The assessment of associated features important to understanding childhood trauma. Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma, 4, 259-273. doi:10.1080/19361521.2011.614923
 Penn State (2012). Exposure to violence has long-term stress effects among adolescents. Science Daily. URL (last checked 4 December 2012).
 Pinheiro, P. S. (2006). World report on violence against children. Geneva: United Nations.
 Schwarz, S. W. (2009). Adolescent mental health in the United States: Facts for policymakers. New York: National Center for Children in Poverty (NCCP) Mailman School of Public Health Columbia University.
 Shavers, C. A. (2009). (Commentary). Minimize the impact of violence for youth. The Clinical Advisor: A Forum for Nurse Practitioners, 74.
 Shavers, C. A. (2010). (Point of View). Promoting the health of children and adolescents exposed to trauma and violence. Primary Issues?. URL (last checked 9 February 2013).