JEP  Vol.4 No.2 , February 2013
The Impact of Traffic Emission on Air Quality in an Urban Environment
ABSTRACT

Study of the impact of traffic emissions on air quality around the Haram Mosque in Makkah, Saudi Arabia, was conducted experimentally, numerically and statistically. Experimental study was performed to measure existing air quality. Numerical study was done to model the extent of air movement and pollutant dispersion within and around the Haram area. Statistical study was conducted to determine correlation coefficients, auto-correlation and time lags of each pollutant. Pollutant measurements were carried out using an air quality mobile laboratory at three sites. Numerical calculations were made using an ISC-AERMOD dispersion model. Concentrations of traffic emissions including nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3) and airborne particulate material under 10 μm diameter (PM10) are presented and analyzed. The calculated concentrations are validated by comparing with observed values at the three sites. The results indicate good agreement between calculated concentrations and observed values, which demonstrate satisfactory model performance. Results show that the Haram area is experiencing high concentrations of dust. High buildings around the Haram Mosque act as flow obstacles. Mean pollutant dispersion was toward the south and southeast during January and June. Highest mean concentrations were observed in January and June.


Cite this paper
H. Al-Jeelani, "The Impact of Traffic Emission on Air Quality in an Urban Environment," Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 4 No. 2, 2013, pp. 205-217. doi: 10.4236/jep.2013.42025.
References
[1]   H. A. Jeelani, “Social and Meteorological Factors Control Air Pollution in Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia,” Ph.D. Thesis, University of East Anglia, Norwich, 1996

[2]   Al-A. A. M. S. Abu-Alghat, “Study of the Air Pollution in Makkah City and the Holy Places,” Third Report Submitted to Hajj Research Center, Aum-Alqura University, Makkah, 1992.

[3]   M. I. Badwi and M. A. Al-Hosary, “Study of Air Quality at Central Area near the Holy Mosque, Makkah City,” Final Report Submitted to Hajj Research Center, Makkah, 1993.

[4]   Y. A. Al-Thumali, “Air Pollution Study of Mina and Arafaat Areas during Hajj Season 1996 with Concentration on Suspended Particulates and Some Gases,” Master’s Thesis, Department of Environmental Sciences, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, 1998.

[5]   A. A. Yacob, “Air Quality Inside the Holy Mosque (Chemical and Microbial Content) ,” Final Report Submitted to Institute of the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosque, Aum Alqura University, Makkah, 2000.

[6]   H. A. Al-Jeelani and M. H. Ramadhan, “Assessment of Air Quality in Mina and Makkah City during Hajj Season,” First Year Report Submitted to the Institute of Research and Consultations (Arabic Text), King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, 2004.

[7]   H. A. Al-Jeelani and M. H. Ramadhan, “Assessment of Air Quality in Mina and Makkah City during Hajj Season,” Final Year Report Submitted to the Institute of Research and Consultations (Arabic Text), King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, 2005.

[8]   H. A. Al-Jeelani, “Assessment of Air Quality in Muna valley during Hajj Season 1424 H,” Journal for Environmental Sciences, Vol. 7, No. 1, 2009.

[9]   H. A. Al-Jeelani, “Air Quality Assessment at Al-Taneem Area in the Holy Makkah City, Saudi Arabia,” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Vol. 156, No. 1-4, 2009, pp. 211-222. doi:10.1007/s10661-008-0475-3

[10]   H. A. Al-Jeelani, “Evaluation of Air Quality in the Holy Makkah during Hajj Season 1425 H,” Journal of Applied Sciences Research, Vol. 5, No. 1, 2009, pp. 115-121.

[11]   A. Al-Sawas, “Air Quality of inside King Fahad Tunnel during the Month of Ramadhan,” Final Report Submitted to Hajj Research Center, Aum-Alqura University, Makkah, 1995.

[12]   H. A. Al-Jeelani, “Effects of Traffic on Air Pollutants Concentration inside Souk Alsagheer Tunnel during the Month of Ramadhan,” Final Report Submitted to Hajj Research Center, Aum-Alqura University, Makkah, 1998.

[13]   A. S. Al-Raddadi, “Study the Air Quality inside the Souk Alsagheer Tunnel,” First Report Submitted to Hajj Research Center, Aum Alqura University, Makkah, 1996.

[14]   D. B. Turner, “Workbook of Atmospheric Dispersion Estimates,” Lewis, Washington DC, 1969.

[15]   N. Manju, R. Balakrishnan and N. Mani, “Assimilative Capacity and Pollutant Dispersion Studies for the Industrial Zone of Manali,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 36, No. 21, 2002, pp. 3461-3471. doi:10.1016/S1352-2310(02)00306-0

[16]   G. C. Holzworth, “Mixing Depths, Wind Speed and Air Pollution Potential for Selected Locations in the United States,” Journal of Applied Meteorology, Vol. 6, No. 6, 1967, pp. 1039-1044. doi:10.1175/1520-0450(1967)006<1039:MDWSAA>2.0.CO;2

 
 
Top