AAR  Vol.2 No.1 , February 2013
Effect of aging on the relationship between capillary supply and muscle fiber size
ABSTRACT

A quantitative analysis of capillary supply to skeletal muscle is important for understanding the upper limit of the capacity for delivery of oxygen and substrates to muscle cells. It has been well documented that the number of capillaries is altered by several factors including development, aging, and alteration of muscle activity level such as exercise training and inactivation. There is, however, a contradiction in animal studies for aging-related change in the number of capillaries. Human studies using biopsy technique also displayed an inconsistency on that point, in which capillary supply was not influenced or decreased with aging. This review discussed an inconsistency among studies for aging-related change in muscle capillary supply. In conclusion, the relationship between capillary supply and muscle fiber size is similar for both young and elderly population, and the morpho- logical balance between capillaries and each muscle fiber was maintained with advancing age.


Cite this paper
Kano, Y. and Sakuma, K. (2013) Effect of aging on the relationship between capillary supply and muscle fiber size. Advances in Aging Research, 2, 37-42. doi: 10.4236/aar.2013.21005.
References
[1]   Hernandez, N., Torres, S.H., Finol, H.J. and Vera, O. (1999) Capillary changes in skeletal muscle of patients with essential hypertension. Anatomical Record, 256, 425 432. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0185(19991201)256:4<425::AID-AR9>3.0.CO;2-X

[2]   Vink, H. and Duling, B.R. (1996) Identification of distinct luminal domains for macromolecules, erythrocytes, and leukocytes within mammalian capillaries. Circulation Research, 79, 581-589. doi:10.1161/01.RES.79.3.581

[3]   Hudlicka, O. (1985) Development and adaptability of mi crovasculature in skeletal muscle. Journal of Experimental Biology, 115, 215-228.

[4]   Brown, M.D. and Hudlicka, O. (2003) Modulation of physiological angiogenesis in skeletal muscle by mechanical forces: Involvement of VEGF and metalloproteinases. Angiogenesis, 6, 1-14. doi:10.1023/A:1025809808697

[5]   Hudlicka, O. and Brown, M.D. (2009) Adaptation of ske letal muscle microvasculature to increased or decreased blood flow: Role of shear stress, nitric oxide and vascular endothelial growth factor. Journal of Vascular Research, 46, 504-512. doi:10.1159/000226127

[6]   Egginton, S. (2009) Invited review: Activity-induced an giogenesis. Pflügers Archeiv, 457, 963-977. doi:10.1007/s00424-008-0563-9

[7]   Green, H., Goreham, C., Ouyang, J., Ball-Burnett, M. and Ranney, D. (1999) Regulation of fiber size, oxidative potential, and capillarization in human muscle by resistance exercise. American Journal of Physiology, 276, R591-596.

[8]   Ahmed, S.K., Egginton, S., Jakeman, P.M., Mannion, A.F. and Ross, H.F. (1997) Is human skeletal muscle capillary supply modelled according to fibre size or fibre type? Experimental Physiology, 82, 231-234.

[9]   Wüst, R.C., Gibbings, S.L. and Degens, H. (2009) Fiber capillary supply related to fiber size and oxidative capacity in human and rat skeletal muscle. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 645, 75-80. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-85998-9_12

[10]   Sakuma, K. and Yamaguchi, A. (2010) Molecular mechanisms in aging and current strategies to counteract sarcopenia. Current Aging Science, 3, 90-101. doi:10.2174/1874609811003020090

[11]   Narici, M.V. and Maffulli, N. (2010) Sarcopenia: Characteristics, mechanisms and functional significance. British Medical Bulletin, 95, 139-159. doi:10.1093/bmb/ldq008

[12]   Thompson, L.V. (2009) Age-related muscle dysfunction. Experimental Gerontology, 44, 106-111. doi:10.1016/j.exger.2008.05.003

[13]   Faulkner, J.A., Larkin, L.M., Claflin, D.R. and Brooks, S.V. (2007) Age-related changes in the structure and function of skeletal muscles. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, 34, 1091-1096. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1681.2007.04752.x

[14]   Luff, A.R. (1998) Age-associated changes in the innervation of muscle fibers and changes in the mechanical pro perties of motor units. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 854, 92-101. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1998.tb09895.x

[15]   Larsson, L. (1995) Motor units: Remodeling in aged animals. Journal of Gerontology A: Biological Science and Medical Science, 50, 91-95.

[16]   Lexell, J. (1995) Human aging, muscle mass, and fiber type composition. Journal of Gerontology A: Biological Science and Medical Science, 50, 11-16.

[17]   Hepple, R.T., Ross, K.D. and Rempfer, A.B. (2004) Fiber atrophy and hypertrophy in skeletal muscles of late middle-aged Fischer 344 x Brown Norway F1-hybrid rats. Journal of Gerontology A: Biological Science and Medical Science, 59, 108-117.

[18]   Carter, E.E., Thomas, M.M., Murynka, T., et al. (2010) Slow twitch soleus muscle is not protected from sarcopenia in senescent rats. Experimental Gerontology, 45, 662-670. doi:10.1016/j.exger.2010.04.001

[19]   Harris, B.A. (2005) The influence of endurance and resistance exercise on muscle capillarization in the elderly: A review. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 185, 89-97. doi:10.1111/j.1365-201X.2005.01461.x

[20]   Coggan, A.R., Spina, R.J., King, D.S., et al. (1992) Ske letal muscle adaptations to endurance training in 60 to 70 yr-old men and women. Journal of Applied Physiology, 72, 1780-1786.

[21]   Frontera, W.R., Hughes, V.A., Fielding, R.A., Fiatarone, M.A., Evans, W.J. and Roubenoff, R. (2000) Aging of skeletal muscle: A 12-yr longitudinal study. Journal of Applied Physiology, 88, 1321-1326.

[22]   Proctor, D.N., Sinning, W.E., Walro, J.M., Sieck, G.C. and Lemon, P.W. (1995) Oxidative capacity of human muscle fiber types: Effects of age and training status. Journal of Applied Physiology, 78, 2033-2038.

[23]   Denis, C., Chatard, J.C., Dormois, D., Linossier, M.T., Geyssant, A. and Lacour, J.R. (1986) Effects of endurance training on capillary supply of human skeletal muscle on two age groups (20 and 60 years). Journal of Physiology (Paris), 81, 379-383.

[24]   Kano, Y., Shimegi, S., Furukawa, H., Matsudo, H. and Mizuta, T. (2002) Effects of aging on capillary number and luminal size in rat soleus and plantaris muscles. Journal of Gerontology A: Biological Science and Medical Science, 57, B422-427.

[25]   Brown, M. (1987) Change in fibre size, not number, in ageing skeletal muscle. Age and Ageing, 16, 244-248. doi:10.1093/ageing/16.4.244

[26]   Mitchell, M.L., Byrnes, W.C. and Mazzeo, R.S. (1991) A comparison of skeletal muscle morphology with training between young and old Fischer 344 rats. Mechanisms of Ageing and Development, 58, 21-35. doi:10.1016/0047-6374(91)90117-I

[27]   Degens, H., Turek, Z., Hoofd, L., van’t Hof, M.A. and Binkhorst, R.A. (1993) Capillarisation and fibre types in hypertrophied m. plantaris in rats of various ages. Respiration Physiology, 94, 217-226. doi:10.1016/0034-5687(93)90049-G

[28]   Davidson, Y.S., Clague, J.E., Horan, M.A. and Pendleton, N. (1999) The effect of aging on skeletal muscle capillarization in a murine model. Journal of Gerontology A: Biological Science and Medical Science, 54, B448-451. doi:10.1093/gerona/54.10.B448

[29]   Kano, Y., Shimegi, S., Takahashi, H., Masuda, K. and Katsuta, S. (2000) Changes in capillary luminal diameter in rat soleus muscle after hind-limb suspension. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 169, 271-276. doi:10.1046/j.1365-201x.2000.00743.x

[30]   Kano, Y., Shimegi, S., Masuda, K., Ohmori, H. and Katsuta, S. (1997) Morphological adaptation of capillary network in compensatory hypertrophied rat plantaris muscle. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, 75, 97-101. doi:10.1007/s004210050132

[31]   Takahara, Y., Senda, M., Hashizume, H., Yagata, Y. and Inoue, H. (1996) Capillary architecture in the skeletal muscles in the rat hind limb. Acta Medica Okayama, 50, 211-218.

[32]   McDonald, K.S., Delp, M.D. and Fitts, R.H. (1992) Fatigability and blood flow in the rat gastrocnemius-plan taris-soleus after hindlimb suspension. Journal of Applied Physiology, 73, 1135-1140.

[33]   Irion, G.L., Vasthare, U.S. and Tuma, R.F. (1988) Preservation of skeletal muscle hyperemic response to contraction with aging in female rats. Experimental Gerontology, 23, 183-188. doi:10.1016/0531-5565(88)90005-8

[34]   Hudlicka, O. (1998) Is physiological angiogenesis in ske letal muscle regulated by changes in microcirculation? Microcirculation, 5, 7-23.

[35]   Terjung, R.L., Zarzeczny, R. and Yang, H.T. (2002) Muscle blood flow and mitochondrial function: Influence of aging. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 12, 368-378.

[36]   McCall, G.E., Byrnes, W.C., Dickinson, A., Pattany, P.M. and Fleck, S.J. (1996) Muscle fiber hypertrophy, hyperplasia, and capillary density in college men after resistance training. Journal of Applied Physiology, 81, 2004 2012.

[37]   Hepple, R.T., Mackinnon, S.L., Thomas, S.G., Goodman, J.M. and Plyley, M.J. (1997) Quantitating the capillary supply and the response to resistance training in older men. Pflügers Archeiv, 433, 238-244. doi:10.1007/s004240050273

[38]   Bell, D.G. and Jacobs, I. (1990) Muscle fibre area, fibre type & capillarization in male and female body builders. Canadian Journal of Sport Science, 15, 115-119.

[39]   Tesch, P.A., Thorsson, A. and Kaiser, P. (1984) Muscle capillary supply and fiber type characteristics in weight and power lifters. Journal of Applied Physiology, 56, 35 38.

 
 
Top