JEMAA  Vol.5 No.2 , February 2013
Analysis of the Performance of Optical Code-Division Multiple-Access System (OCDMA), Operating with Gold Codes under Nonlinear Effects
Abstract

A numerical simulation study of the performance of encoding and decoding of short optical pulse in OCDMA (Optical Code Division Multiple Access) systems under non-linear optical effects is presented. The performance of encoding and decoding short pulses is obtained through use of device FBG (fiber Bragg grating) where the codes are inserted through discrete jumps in the optical phase (±π). The multiuser interference is also the object of the present study, where a figure of merit (interference figure) is used to quantify the interference in multiuser auto and cross correlation. We evaluate the dependence of the multiuser interference for the coupling constant of FBG. Finally, the interference inserted in the autocorrelation due to nonlinear effects generated in the nonlinear switching of the coded pulse in a dual core nonlinear directional coupler is examined, where temporal broadening of pulses decoded is observed.


Cite this paper
G. Guimarães, A. Bastos, A. Ferreira, A. Queiroz, J. Menezes, J. Sousa and A. Sombra, "Analysis of the Performance of Optical Code-Division Multiple-Access System (OCDMA), Operating with Gold Codes under Nonlinear Effects," Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications, Vol. 5 No. 2, 2013, pp. 49-57. doi: 10.4236/jemaa.2013.52008.
References

[1]   P. R. Prucnal, “Optical Code Division Multiple Acess— Fundamentals and Applications,” CRC Press Taylor & Francis, 2006.

[2]   P. C. Teh, P. Petropoulos, M. Ibsen and D. J. Richardson, “A Comparative Study of the Performance of Sevenand 63-Chip Optical Code-Division Multiple-Access Encoders and Decoders Based on Superstructured Fiber Bragg Gratings,” Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 19, No. 9, 2001, pp. 1352-1365. doi:10.1109/50.948283

[3]   P. R. Prucnal, M. A. Santoro and T. R. Fan, “Spread Spectrum Fiber-Optic Local área Network Using Optical Processing,” IEEE/OSA Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 4, No. 5, 1986, pp. 547-554. doi:10.1109/JLT.1986.1074754.

[4]   V. Jyoti and R. S. Kaler, “Design and Implementation of 2-Dimensional Wavelength/Time Codes for OCDMA,” International Journal for Light and Electron Optics, Vol. 122, No. 10, 2011, pp. 851-857. doi:10.1016/j.ijleo.2010.05.025.

[5]   A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage and J. A. Salehi, “Encoding and Decoding of Femtosecond Pulses,” Optics Letters, Vol. 13, No. 4, 1988, pp. 300-302. doi:10.1364/OL.13.000300

[6]   K. Kitayama, “Novel Spatial Spread Spectrum Based Fiber Optic CDMA Networks for Image Transmission,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Vol. 12, No. 4, 1994, pp. 762-772. doi:10.1109/49.286683

[7]   E. Park, A. J. Mendez and E. M. Garmire, “Temporal/ Spatial Optical CDMA Networks-Design, Demonstration, and Comparison with Temporal Networks,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, Vol. 4, No. 10, 1992, pp. 11601162. doi:10.1109/68.163765

[8]   A. Grunnet-Jepsen, A. E. Johnson, E. S. Maniloff, T. W. Mossberg, M. J. Munroe and J. N. Sweetser, “Demonstration of All-Fiber Sparse Lightwave CDMA Based on Temporal Phase Encoding,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, Vol. 11, No. 10, 1999, pp. 1283-1285. doi:10.1109/68.789718

[9]   R. Kashyap, “A New Class of Fibre Grating Based BandPass Filters: The Asymmetric Interferometer,” Optics Communications, Vol. 153 No. 1-3, 1998, pp. 14-18. doi:10.1016/S0030-4018(98)00211-9

[10]   R. Kashyap, “Fibre Bragg Gratings,” Academic Press, London, 1999.

[11]   Y Murakami, “Characteristics of a Grating-Folded Optical Directional Coupler,” Fiber and Integrated Optics, Vol. 24, No. 5, 2005, pp. 445-456. doi:10.1080/01468030590966553.

[12]   L. R. Chen, S. D. Benjamin, P. W. E. Smith and J. E. Sipe, “Ultrashort Pulse Reflection from Fiber Gratings: A Numerical Investigation,” Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 15, No. 8, 1997, pp. 1503-1512. doi:10.1109/50.618383

[13]   G. P. Agrawal, “Applications of Nonlinear Fiber Optics,” Academic Press, London, 2009.

[14]   J. S. Lee and L. E Miller, “CDMA Systems Engineering Handbook,” Artech House, London, 1998.

[15]   S. M. Jensen, “The Nonlinear Coherent Coupler,” IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, Vol. 18, No.10, 1982, pp. 1580-1583. doi:10.1109/JQE.1982.1071438

[16]   W. D. Deering and M. I. Molina, “Power Switching in Hybrid Coherent Couplers,” IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, Vol. 33, No. 3, 1997, pp. 336-340. doi:10.1109/3.556001

[17]   J. M. Soto-Crespo and E. M. Wright, “All-Optical Switching of Solitons in Twoand Three-Core Nonlinear Fiber Couplers,” Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 70, No. 12, 1991, pp. 7240-7243. doi:10.1063/1.349768

[18]   M. G. Da Silva and A. S. B. Sombra, “All-Optical Soliton Switching in Three-Core Nonlinear Fiber Couplers,” Optics Communications, Vol. 145, No. 1-6, 1998, pp. 281290. doi:10.1016/S0030-4018(97)00503-8

[19]   M. G. Da Silva, A. F. Teles and A. S. B. Sombra, “Soliton Switching in Three-Core Nonlinear Directional Fiber Couplers,” Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 84, No. 4, 1998, pp.1834-1842. doi:10.1063/1.368615

[20]   N. Sugimoto, T. Nagashima, T. Hasegawa, S. Ohara, K. Taira and K. Kikuchi, “Bismuth-Based Optical Fiber with Nonlinear Coefficient of 1360 W-1 km-1,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Los Angeles, 23-27 February 2004. doi:10.1109/OFC.2004.1362296.

[21]   J. W. M. Menezes, W. B. Fraga, G. F. Guimar?es, A. C. Ferreira, H. H. B. Rocha, M. G. Silva and A. S. B. Sombra, “Optical Switches and All-Fiber Logical Devices Based on Triangular and Planar Three-Core Nonlinear Optical Fiber Couplers,” Optics Communications, Vol. 276, No. 1, 2007, pp. 107-115. doi:10.1016/j.optcom.2007.03.071

[22]   A. F. G. F. Filho, J. R. R. Sousa, A. F. M. Neto, J. W. M. Menezes and A. S. B. Sombra, “Periodic Modulation of Nonlinearity in a Fiber Bragg Grating: A Numerical Investigation,” Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications, Vol. 4, No. 2, 2012, pp. 53-59. doi:10.4236/jemaa.2012.42007

[23]   K. D. A. Sabóia, A. S. B. Queiroz, F. T. Lima, C. S. Sobrinho, J. W. M. Menezes and A. S. B. Sombra, “Optical Bistability in an Acousto-Optic Tunable Filter (AOTF) Operating With Short Optical Pulses,” Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications, Vol. 4, No. 3, 2012, pp. 112-117. doi:10.4236/jemaa.2012.43015

[24]   A. C. Ferreira, M. B. C. Costa, A. G. Coêlho Jr., C. S. Sobrinho, J. L. S. Lima, J. W. M. Menezes, M. L. Lyra and A. S. B. Sombra, “Analysis of the Nonlinear Optical Switching in a Sagnac Interferometer with Non-Instantaneous Kerr Effect,” Optics Communications, Vol. 285, No. 6, 2012, pp. 1408-1417. doi:10.1016/j.optcom.2011.10.026

[25]   J. W. M. Menezes, J. R. R. Sousa, M. B. C. Costa, A. C. Ferreira, F. T. Lima, C. S. Sobrinho, M. L. Lyra and A. S. B. Sombra, “Numerical Analysis of the Instantaneous and Relaxed Kerr Model for Generation of the All-Optical Logic Gates with Triangular Fiber Coupler (TFC),” Journal of Nonlinear Optical Physics & Materials, Vol. 21, No. 3, 2012, Article ID: 1250037. doi:10.1142/S0218863512500373

[26]   A. C. Ferreira, C. S. Sobrinho, J. W. M. Menezes, W. B. Fraga, H. H. B. Rocha, A. Wirth Jr., K. D. A. Sabóia, G. F. Guimar?es, J. M. S. Filho and A. S. B. Sombra, “A Performance Study of an All-Optical Logic Gate Based in PAM-ASK,” Journal of Modern Optics, Vol. 56, No. 8, 2009, pp. 1004-1013. doi:10.1080/09500340902871371

[27]   J. W. M. Menezes, W. B. Fraga, A. C. Ferreira, G. F. Guimar?es, A. F. G. F. Filho, C. S. Sobrinho and A. S. B. Sombra, “All-Optical Half Adder Using All-Optical XOR and AND Gates for Optical Generation of “SUM” and “CARRY,” Fiber and Integrated Optics, Vol. 29, No. 4, 2010, pp. 254-271. doi:10.1080/01468030.2010.485290

[28]   A. W. Lima Jr., M. G. da Silva, A. C. Ferreira and A. S. B. Sombra, “All-Optical Nonlinear Switching Cell Made of Photonic Crystal,” Journal of the Optical Society of America A, Vol. 26, No. 7, 2009, pp. 1661-1667. doi:10.1364/JOSAA.26.001661

[29]   J. W. M. Menezes, W. B. Fraga, F. T. Lima, G. F. Guimar?es, A. C. Ferreira, M. L. Lyra and A. S. B. Sombra, “Study of the Performance of an All-Optical Half Adder Based on Three-Core Nonlinear Directional Fiber Coupler under Delayed and Instantaneous Nonlinear Kerr Response,” Fiber and Integrated Optics, Vol. 30, No. 3, 2011, pp. 201-230. doi:10.1080/01468030.2011.568669

[30]   C. S. Sobrinho, A. C. Ferreira, J. W. M. Menezes, G. F. Guimar?es, W. B. Fraga, A. F. G. F. Filho, H. H. B. Rocha, S. P. Marciano, K. D. A. Sabóia and A. S. B. Sombra, “Analysys of an Optical Logic Gate Using a Symmetric Coupler Operating With Pulse Position Modulation (PPM),” Optics Communications, Vol. 281, No. 5, 2008, pp. 1056-1064. doi:10.1016/j.optcom.2007.10.046

[31]   K. D. A. Sabóia, A. C. Ferreira, C. S. Sobrinho, W. B. Fraga, J. W. M. Menezes, M. L. Lyra and A. S. B. Sombra, “Optical Cryptography under PPM-PAM Modulation Based in Short Optical Pulses in an Acoustic-Optic Tunable Filter (AOTF),” Optical and Quantum Electronics, Vol. 41, No. 14-15, 2009, pp. 963-980. doi:10.1007/s11082-010-9409-8

[32]   J. W. M. Menezes, W. B. Fraga, A. C. Ferreira, K. D. A. Sabóia, A. F. G. F. Filho, G. F. Guimar?es, J. R. R. Sousa, H. H. B. Rocha and A. S. B. Sombra, “Logic Gates Based in Two and Three-Modes Nonlinear Optical Fiber Couplers,” Optical and Quantum Electronics, Vol. 39, No. 14, 2007, pp. 1191-1206. doi:10.1007/s11082-008-9186-9

 
 
Top