Introduction: Patients undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy
(EGD) have variable stress and anxiety and therefore commonly receive
medications as sedative-anxiolytics. These medications have small but
significant risks. To possibly make procedures safer and to increase patient
satisfaction, this study aimed to measure the effects of allowing an
accompanying person (AP) to be present in the endoscopy suite during EGD. Patients
and Methods: Forty-two patients were randomly divided into two groups who would
either be or not be offered to have an AP during endoscopy. Spielberger’s
well-validated state and trait anxiety evaluations were administered to
patients before and after EGD. APs also completed questionnaires as to their
reactions after EGD. Results: 84.2% of the patients after EGD recommended
accompaniment. Patients who underwent EGD with an AP tended (p < 0.06) to
have decreased measurable anxiety compared to patients who were not offered an
AP. The benefit was significant for persons with higher levels of anxiety prior
to EGD (p < 0.04). Patients undergoing EGD for the first time had significantly
more anxiety than those with previous EGD experience (p < 0.034). There was
no significant reduction in sedative dosage when APs were present. Conclusions:
Offering to permit the presence of an accompanying person during EGD was often
shown to improve patient satisfaction and reduce anxiety.
Cite this paper
Lachter, J. and Bluen, B. (2013) Patient stress and satisfaction when allowed the presence of an accompanying person during endoscopy. Open Journal of Gastroenterology, 3, 78-83. doi: 10.4236/ojgas.2013.31012.
 Sharma, V.K., Nguyen, C.C., Crowell, M.D., Lieberman, D.A., de Garmo, P. and Fleisher, D.E. (2007) A national study of cardiopulmonary unplanned events after GI endoscopy. Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, 66, 27-34.
 Spielberger, C.D., Gorssuch, R.L., Lushene, P.R., Vagg, P.R. and Jacobs, G.A. (1983) Manual for the state-trait anxiety inventory. Consulting Psychologists Press, Inc., Mountain View.
 Gattuso, S.M., Litt, M.D. and Fitagerald, T.E. (1992) Coping with gastrointestinal endoscopy: Self-efficacy enhancement and coping style. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 60, 133-139.
 Horne, D.J.L., Vatmanidis, P. and Careri, A. (1994) Preparing patients for invasive medical and surgical procedures 1: Adding behavioral and cognitive interventions. Behavioral Medicine, 20, 5-13.
 Shipley, R.H., Butt, J.H., Farbry, J.E. and Horwitz, B. (1977) Psychological preparation for endoscopy: Physiological and behavioral changes in patients with differing coping styles for stress. Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, 24, 9-13. doi:10.1016/S0016-5107(77)73427-3
 Whitford, D.L., Karim, M. and Thompson, G. (2001) Attitudes of patients toward the use of chaperones in primary care. British Journal of General Practice, 51, 381 383.
 Ladas, S.D., Novis, B., Triantafyllou, K., Schoefl, R., Stanciu, C., Isaacs, P., Willich, S.N., Ronn, O., Dremel, H., Livadas, G., Egan, B.J., Boyacioglu, S., Selimovic, A., Pulanic, R., Karagiannis, J., Van Vooren, J.P., Kouroumalis, E., O’Morain, C., Nowak, A., Deviere, J., Malfertheiner, P. and Axon, A. (2007) Ethical issues in endoscopy: Patient satisfaction, safety in elderly patients, palliation, and relations with industry. Second European Symposium on Ethics in Gastroenterology and Digestive Endoscopy. Endoscopy, 39, 556-565.
 Berk, E.J. and Brandt, L.J. (2001) Patients attitudes and apprehensions about endoscopy: How to calm troubled waters. American Journal of Gastroenterology, 96, 280 284. doi:10.1111/j.1572-0241.2001.03508.x
 Brody, D.S. (1980) Physician recognition of behavioral, psychological, and social aspects of medical care. Archives of Internal Medicine, 140, 1286-1289.
 Mahajan, L., Wyllie, R., Steffen, R., Kay, M., Kitacka, G., Dettore, J., Sarigot, S. and McCue, K. (1998) The effects of a psychological preparation program on anxiety in children and adolescents undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopy. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology & Nutrition, 27, 161-165.
 Morales-Guijarro, A.M., Nogales-Cortes, M.D. and Perez Tirado, L. (2011) Satisfied companion, a quality indicator in emergencies. Revista de Calidad Asistencial, 26, 47-53.
 Ekwall, A., Gerdtz, M. and Manias, E. (2009) Anxiety as a factor influencing satisfaction with emergency department care: Perspectives of accompanying persons. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 18, 3489-3497.
 Keinan, G., Ezer, A. and Feigin, M. (1992) The Influence of situational and personal variables on the effectiveness of social support during childbirth. Anxiety Research, 4, 325-337. doi:10.1080/08917779208248800
 Afaneh, I., Sharma, V., McVey, R., Murphy, C. and Geary, M. (2010) The use of a chaperone in obstetrical and gynaecological practice. Iranian Red Crescent Medi cal Journal, 103, 137-139.
 Rex, D.K., Deenadayalu, V.P., Eid, E., Imperiale, T.F., Walker, J.A., Sandhu, K., Clarke, A.C., Hillman, L.C., Horiuchi, A., Cohen, L.B., Heuss, L.T., Peter, S., Beglinger, C., Sinnott, J.A., Welton, T., Rofail, M., Subei, I., Sleven, R., Jordan, P., Goff, J., Gertenberger, P.D., Munnings, H., Tagle, M., Sipe, B.W., Wehrmann, T., Di Palma, J.A., Occhipinti, K.E., Barbi, E., Riphaus, A., Amann, S.T., Tohda, G., McClellan, T., Thueson, C., Morse, J. and Meah, N. (2009) Endoscopist-directed administration of propofol: A worldwide safety experience. Gastroenterology, 137, 1229-1237.
 Shapira, M. and Tamir, A. (1996) Presence of family member during upper endoscopy: What do patients and escorts think? Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, 22, 272-274. doi:10.1097/00004836-199606000-00006